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Assiniboin

 

 

Ethnie: ASSINIBOIN
Language: Dakota
Family: Central Mississippi Valley Siouan 
Stock: Siouan Proper
Phylum: Siouan
Macro-Culture: Great Plains
Speakers 150 to 200 speakers    1986 Census
      Aboriginally, the ancestors of the Assiniboin were likely sedentary hunter/farmers among the Yanktonai Dakota.  By 1640, they had their nomadic hunter/gatherer identity ranging from Montana and North Dakota north into Saskatchewan.  Their numerous enemies included the Blackfeet and Gros Ventre but they eventually allied with the Lakota and Crow.
      The Assiniboin were the primary intermediaries between Hudson Bay Company and tribes to the south and west.  In doing so, they were able to keep guns from their enemies.  They nonetheless suffered severely from intertribal conflicts and from smallpox.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
MN among Yanktonai Dakota
Present Locations
AB    Stoney Reserve, Calgary
MT    Fort Belknap Reservation, Harlem
          Fort Peck Reservation, Poplar
SK     Mosquito Grizzly Bear's Head, Cando
          White Bear, Carlyle
Year History
1640 Mentioned by the Jesuits, had separated from the Yanktonai Dakota prior to this date
1670 Began visiting Hudson Bay to trade, functioned as intermediaries between Hudson Bay Company and tribes
1700 Allied with the Cree against the Sioux
1738 La Verendrye observed Assiniboin trading with the Mandan
1804 Visited by Lewis and Clark
1823 Rocky Mountain Fur Company trappers arrived in Assiniboin territory on two Mike Fink keel boats
1831 The Light visited Washington, later killed in a feud with a tribesman
1837 Ft. Union established at the conflux of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers; smallpox epidemic, some saved by previous Hudson Bay Company vaccinations
1838 La Gauche band had previously attacked Gros Ventre inflicting heavy losses, then later defeated by Arikara and Mandan, and possibly Hidatsa
1844 Made peace with Crow
1846 Famine forced eating of dogs, horses, and children
1849 Piegan Blackfeet killed 52 of tribe on the Maria River
1851 Precarious peace with Blackfeet and Gros Ventre at Ft. Laramie
1857 Attacked by Sitting Bull's Lakota, 11 year old Jumping Bull fought bravely with child sized bow and arrow, became Sitting Bull's brother
1873 Methodist mission set up at Stoney
1877 Treaty No. 7 established Stoney Reserve
1913 St. Michael's Mission established
Year Total Population AB MB MT ND SK Source
1700 10,000 1,000 3,500 3,500 2,000 NAHDB calculation
1780 10,000 Mooney estimate
1800 8,000 800 2,800 2,800 1,600 NAHDB calculation
1829 8,000 Porter estimate
1843 7,000 US Indian Office
1890 3,008 Census
1900 1,900 600 700 600 NAHDB calculation 
1904 1,231 Census
1923 2,400 US Indian Office
1989 3,500 BIA estimate
2000 8,300 3,300 3,000 2,000 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Dakota
Assiniboin Sites:
Aboriginal-European Contact at the Forks 1734-60  http://www.pc.gc.ca/lhn-nhs/mb/forks/natcul/contact_e.asp
Assiniboin  http://www.halcyon.com/benmarra/nativeamericans/powwow2.html
Assiniboin  http://www.nativeamericans.com/Assiniboin.htm
Assiniboin  http://www.old-picture.com/assiniboin-index-001.htm
Assiniboin  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/scripts/data/database.cgi?file=Data&report=SingleArticle&ArticleID=0017321
Assiniboin  http://www.everyculture.com/North-America/Assiniboin.html
Assiniboin  http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/society/A0805074.html
Assiniboin  http://www.thewildwest.org/interface/index.php?action=191
Assiniboin Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t261
Assiniboin Bowman - 1926  http://www.ushistoricalarchive.com/indians/photos/ct18059.html
Assiniboin Boy  http://www.old-picture.com/indians/Assiniboin-Boy.htm
Assiniboin Camp  http://www.firstpeople.us/tipi/an-assiniboin-camp.html
Assiniboin Camp on Bow River - 1926  http://www.ushistoricalarchive.com/indians/photos/ct18063.html
Assiniboine  http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/assiniboine.html
Assiniboine  http://lewisandclark.state.mt.us/Assiniboine.htm
Assiniboine History from Oral Tradition  http://mtprof.msun.edu/Win2003/r4star.html
Assiniboine Figurine  http://www.onlinediscountmart.com/76-5932.html
Assiniboine Indian Language  http://www.native-languages.org/assiniboine.htm
Assiniboine Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=asb
Assiniboine Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=asb
Assiniboine (Nakoda)  http://www.humboldt.edu/~wrd1/linksnak.htm
Assiniboine-Sioux Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t4
Assiniboine Tribe  http://www.omaha.lib.ne.us/transmiss/congress/assiniboine.html
Assiniboin Indian Bands and Divisions  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/assiniboin/assiniboinbands.htm
Assiniboin Indian History  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/assiniboin/assiniboinhist.htm
Assiniboin Indians  http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/native/ass.html
Assiniboin Indians  http://www.nationalgeographic.com/lewisandclark/record_tribes_004_4_12.html
Assiniboin:  Lewis and Clark Journals  http://www.nps.gov/jeff/LewisClark2/TheJourney/NativeAmericans/Assiniboin.htm
Assiniboin Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ASB
Assiniboin Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=ASB
Assiniboin, Mid-April to May, 1805  http://www.umsl.edu/~econed/louisiana/Am_Indians/11-Assiniboin/11-assiniboin.html
Assiniboin Society  http://www.thewildwest.org/native_american/society/Assiniboin.html
Bearspaw  http://www.biographi.ca/EN/ShowBio.asp?BioId=41102
Black Eagle, an Assiniboin Chief  http://sarahrusselldolls.com/Black%20Eagle.htm
Chief Eagle Friend  http://www.fretwellflutes.com/Grandpa.html
Dakota Lakota Nakota Human Right Advocacy Coalition  http://www.dlncoalition.org/
Fort Assiniboine  http://www.woodlands.ab.ca/tour/forta.htm
Fort Assiniboine  http://www.havremt.com/attractions/fort_assinniboine.htm
Fort Assiniboine  http://ag.montana.edu/narc/fort.htm
Fort Carlton  http://www.beardys.com/History_Fort_Carlton_Page_1.htm
Fort Peck  http://indiannations.visitmt.com/fortpeck.shtm
Fort Peck Assiniboine and Sioux History  http://www.montana.edu/wwwfpcc/tribes/index.html
Fort Peck Tribes  http://www.fortpecktribes.org/
Fort Peck Tribes Flag  http://users.aol.com/donh523/navapage/ftpeck.htm
Fort Union Vocabulary  http://www.nps.gov/fous/guide2.htm
Hunting (Bison Pound)  http://www.sicc.sk.ca/heritage/ethnography/cree/livelihood/hunting.html
Lakota/Nakota/Dakota  http://www.hanksville.org/daniel/lakota/Lakota.html
Letter of the Crazy Bear, Assiniboin Chief  http://users.skynet.be/pater.de.smet/pj-b-e/pagina84.htm
Middle Dakota  http://www.runningdeerslonghouse.com/webdoc281.htm
Middle Dakota  http://curtis-collection.com/tribe%20data/middledakota.html
Nakoda (Assiniboine)  http://www.languagegeek.com/siouan/nakoda_assiniboine.html
Nakota  http://www.ftlcomm.com/ensign/ensign2/humanAdaptations/skEnthnicity/nakota.html
Northern Assiniboine  http://curtis-collection.com/tribe%20data/nassiniboin.html
Oregon Trail  http://linnhistory.peak.org/1853/1853immore.html
Pheasant Rump Nakota Nation  http://www.sicc.sk.ca/bands/bpheas.html
Photos  http://www.nationalcowboymuseum.org/research/r_a_jone_imag.html
Substitution of the Bone Hair Pipe  http://www.sil.si.edu/DigitalCollections/BAE/Bulletin164/section4.htm
Wisdom of the Elders  http://www.wisdomoftheelders.org/program207.html

Last updated 09/20/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press