Arizona Tohono O'odham



Language: Upper Piman
Family: Tepiman
Stock: Uto-Aztecan
Phylum: Aztec-Tanoan
Macro-Culture: Southwestern Desert
Speakers 11,819 1990 Census including Pima
     The Tohono O'odham were a sedentary desert hunter/farmer nation.  They occupied the arid territories south and southeast of the Gila River, especially south of Tucson, and the tributary valleys of the Santa Cruz River, and southwest southwest across the Papagueria Desert into Sonora, Mexico.
     Tohono O'odham tradition maintains that the adobe ruins in their territories, including Casa Grande, were built by their ancestors.  It continues that their old way of life was destroyed by three bands of foreigners who destroyed their pueblos, devastated their fields, and killed or enslaved many of their people.  The survivors fled to the mountains for some time, and upon returning, elected not to rebuild the pueblos.
     The Tohono O'odham experienced early Spanish influence from missionization.  The suffered from Apache depredations and the influx of settlers and outlaws.  They nonetheless maintained substantial populations.  This analysis reflects only the Arizona inhabitants.
Aboriginal Locations
About 28 villages in AZ & 30 in MX
Arizona Present Locations
AZ  Ak Chin Reservation, Ak Chin
       Papago Reservation, Sells
       San Xavier Reservation, Sells
       Tohono O'odham Council, Sells
Year History
1694 Visited by Father Kino who introduced horses and wheat
1731 Frs. Segresser and Grashoffer founded Missions San Xavier del Bac and San Miguel de Guevavi
1736 Visited by Fr. Ignacio Javier Keller
1751 Participated in Pima rebellion
1769 Decrease in Spanish military presence resulted in increased Apache raids
1776 Presidio established at Tucson, 75 men
1853 Gadsden Purchase
1854 Railroad surveys, influx of miners into territory
1856 Campaign with the US military against the Apache
1872 San Xavier Reservation established
1879 Railroad constructed; suffered from depredations of White settlers and outlaws
1986 Tribe changed name from Papago to Tohono O'Odham
Year U.S. Population Source
1680 6,000 Mooney estimate
1700 6,000 NAHDB calculation
1800 5,500 NAHDB calculation
1900 5,000 NAHDB calculation
1906 4,981 Swanton
1923 5,267 US Indian Office
1930 5,205 Census
1937 6,306 US Indian Office
1973 8,708 BIA
1981 17,671 BIA Estimate
2000 20,000 NAHDB calculation & ITCA
Other speakers of the same language:
Sobaipuri, Tohono O'Odham
Pima Sites:
Ak Chin Indian Community
American Indian Women as Art Educators
Baboquivari Peak ...
Border Issues
Border Issues
Border Issues
Border Security
Chairman Josiah Newton Moore
Coil Plaque,475.html
Fame of Padre Kino
Gathering Cactus Fruit
Hohokam Pima National Monument
Horse Hair Plaque
Immigrants Leaving Mounds of Trash ...
Indian Lands
Interview:  Vivian Juan-Sanders
Labyrinth Design
Meet the Ancient O'Odham
O'odham Language
Papago Arts
Papago - Tohono O'odham
Research in the Sierra Madre ...
Reservation Etiquette
Resources for Astronomy Outreach ...
Reviving Native Foods ...
Sahuaro Pickers' Basket
San Xavier del Bac Mission ...
Songs of the Tohono O'odham
Stanley Explores the Hohokam Culture
Tohono Basket
Tohono O'odham
Tohono O'odham and Akimel O'Odham Language
Tohono O'odham as a Quantity-Sensitive Language
Tohono O;odham Basket
Tohono O'odham Basket
Tohono O'odham Basket
Tohono O'odham Basket
Tohono O'odham Basket Miniature Horse Hair
Tohono O'odham Baskets
Tohono O'odham Basket Tray'odham_tray_basket_by_Rena_Grandson.htm
Tohono O'odham Basket Vase
Tohono O'odham Flag
Tohono O'odham Indians
Tohono O'odham Indian Lands
Tohono O'odham Language
Tohono O'odham Nation
Tohono O'odham Nation
Tohono O'odham / Papago
Tohono O'odham (Papago) Literature
Tohono O'odham (Papago) Literature
Tohono O'odham Teacher Hopes ...
Tohono O'odham Today
Tohono O'odham Words
Toward a Responsive Dwelling
Tribe Wants U.S. Citizenship for Members in Mexico
Tumacacori NHP
Underhill, Ruth and Maria Chona ...
Zepeda, Ofelia, Author

Last updated 01/26/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press