FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE

California Hokan Phylum

AZTEC-TANOAN
CHUMASHAN
HOKAN
MACRO-ALGONQUIAN
MACRO-PENUTIAN
NA-DENE
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     The Hokan speakers are among, if not the, earliest inhabitants of California.  It has been hypothesized that the phylum includes southeastern Texas ethnies: Coahuiltecans and Tonkawans (Sapir 1929, Voegelin and Voegelin 1966, and Greenberg 1987).  That hypothesis is accepted in this analysis with the California Hokan classified as Western Hokan.  There are Hokan branches in Meso-America as well.
     There is considerable dispute as to whether Chumashan is in the Hokan family of languages (Analysis).  Chumashan is considered a separate phylum in this analysis.  Indeed, some linguists doubt if a Hokan phylum exists at all though a Pomo-Yuman relationship has been established.  The Yukian language has been classified at Hokan by some but is classified as Macro-Penutian in this analysis.
     The cultures represented herein as the Hokan language phylum are:

 

     Colorado River hunter/farmers River Yumans
     Coastal hunter/gatherers Diegueno, Esselen, Pomo, Salinan, Seri (MX)
     Semi-sedentary hunter/gatherers Diegueno, Kamia, Salinan, Yanans
     Sedentary hunter-fisher/gatherers Chimariko, Shastans
     Sedentary hunter/horticulturists Pai Yumans (AZ)
     Great Basin foragers Washoe
 

     Some of the Western Hokan languages have survived, but there is only limited recordings of Chimariko, Esselen, and Salinan.

 

 

Stock Family Language Ethnie
Western Hokan Esselen-Yuman Delta-California Yuman Diegueno
      Kamia
    Kohuana
    Esselen Esselen
    River Yuman Halchidhoma
      Mojave
      Yuma
  Chimariko Chimariko Chimariko
  Pomo Pomo Pomo
  Salinan-Seri Salinan Salinan
  Shastan Palaihninan Achomawi
      Atsugewi
    Shastan Karuk
      Shasta
  Washoan Washoan Washoe
  Yanan Yanan Yahi
      Yana