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     The data provided herein is extracted from the Native American Historical Data Base by Larry T. B. Sunderland.  Similar presentations for the entire United States and Canada have been published in The Native American Handbook by Four Directions Press ISBN 0-9712666.1.1 who will begin filling orders November 1, 2001.  No representation as to accuracy are made regarding the links that are not a part of this web site. 
 
John R. Swanton, Indian Tribes of North America; California, Smithsonian Institution Bureau of Ethnology Bulletin145 (Washington Government Printing Office 1952)

     Aboriginal populations are those estimated at contact.  Most believe that the 1492 populations were as much as twice as high.  It is theorized the post-Columbian/pre-contact disease resulted in cataclysmic depopulation. 

     Populations are projected by the data base for benchmark years entitled Arrival, Year 1700, Year 1800, Year 1900, and Year 2000 for broad analysis purposes.   These analyses will be added to this page from time to time.
     All benchmark populations are rounded to the nearest 50.  Estimated populations of less than 25 are considered zero.   Population of unrecognized tribes or bands have been difficult to discern and are not always included in the analyses.