FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE

California Languages

AZTEC-TANOAN
CHUMASHAN
HOKAN
MACRO-ALGONQUIAN
MACRO-PENUTIAN
NA-DENE
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     Most believe that five separate language phyla existed among the Native Americans who inhabited present California at the time of European arrival; the Aztec-Tanoan, Hokan, Macro-Algonquian, Macro-Penutian, and Na-Dene.  However, recent work by Marianne Mithun (1999) et al has resulted in the establishment of a separate Chumashan phylum.  Indeed, there is some question if a Hokan phylum exists at all.  The only remaining significant dispute relative to the phylum assignment of California languages rest with the Yukian speaking peoples:

Chumash: Hokan (Kroeber 1925, Sapir 1929, Voegelin and Voegelin 1966, Greenberg 1987)
Chumashan (Mithun 1999)
Yukians: Penutian (Radin 1919, Shipley 1957, Greenberg 1987)
Hokan (Sapir 1927, Swadesh 1954, Gunsky 1965)
Siouan (Sapir 1921, Elmendorf 1964)
Isolate (Kroeber 1925, Voegelin and Voegelin 1929, )
     Chumash is classified as Chumashan and Yuki as Macro-Penutian in this analysis with the recognition that these classifications are in dispute. Further, some of the family and stock classifications of several ethnies are disputed.
 
 

California Languages Links

American Indian Language Policy and School Success  http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/BOISE.html
The Bipartite Stem Belt  http://www.uoregon.edu/~delancey/papers/bls96.html
California's Native Peoples  http://ceres.ca.gov/ceres/calweb/native.html
California's Native Peoples - Linguistic Changes  http://www.cabrillo.cc.ca.us/~crsmith/anth6_formative.html#language
Ethnologue  http://www.ethnologue.com/web.asp
Flutes of Fire:  Essays on California Indian Languages  http://www.heydaybooks.com/books/ff.html
Language is Life Gathering  http://www.calhum.org/learn/projects/llrp/llrpConference.html
Society for the Study of Indigenous Languages of the Americas  http://ssila.org/
Survey for California and Other Indian Languages  http://www.linguistics.berkeley.edu/Survey/