FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE

California Macro-Penutian Phylum

AZTEC-TANOAN
CHUMASHAN
HOKAN
MACRO-ALGONQUIAN
MACRO-PENUTIAN
NA-DENE
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     The membership, and even the existence of a Macro-Penutian phylum is disputed. If the inclusionist school is correct, the Macro-Penutian phylum ranges from southern Alaska to central Chile. And, if the inclusionist school is correct, the member cultures range from the advanced Mayan culture of Yucatan to hunter/gatherer tribes of California and Oregon. It is doubtful that most of the linguistic disputes will ever be settled, since a great number of the disputed languages are extinct and unrecorded.

     All of the United States and Canada Macro-Penutians were hunter/gatherer cultures and were mostly sedentary. The Tsimshian of northern British Columbia were the only maritime culture in the phylum in the U. S. and Canada.
     Indeed, all of the California Penutians were semi-sedentary hunter/gatherers and only the Costanoans were coastal.

 

Stock Family Language Ethnie
Penutian Pen Maiduan (5 languages) Maidu
    Wintuan Wintu
    Yokutsan Yokuts
  Utian Costanoan Costanoan
    Miwokan (2 languages) Coast Miwok
      Lake Miwok
      Sierra Miwok