Central California Culture

Central California Cultural Traits

1.   Semi-sedentary hunter/gatherers
.  Acorns most important food
.  Fish an important food source, particularly salmon
2.   Practiced Kuksu religion which featured dance cycles aimed at bountiful harvest and hunt and good weather
.   Strict incest taboos
.   Annual mourning ceremony
.   Puberty rites of passage:
.   Secret male society typical
.   Monogamous
.   Shaman based (Grizzly bear and rattlesnake shamans important)
3.   Peaceful
4.   Communal
5.   Excellent basket weavers using coiled technique
6.   Usually lived in conical bark or tule houses
7.   Traded extensively

Central California Culture languages and tribes:

Phylum / Stock / Family / Language Tribe
Hokan / Western Hokan / Pomoan / Pomoan Pomo
Hokan / Western Hokan / Yanan / Yanan Yahi
Yana
Macro-Penutian / Penutian / Pen / Maiduan Maidu
Macro-Penutian / Penutian / Pen / Wintuan Wintu
Macro-Penutian / Penutian / Pen / Yokutsan Yokuts
Macro-Penutian / Penutian / Utian / Costanoan Costanoan
Macro-Penutian / Penutian / Utian / Miwokan Coast Miwok
Lake Miwok
Sierra Miwok
Macro-Penutian / Yukian / Wappo / Wappo Wappo
Macro-Penutian / Yukian / Yukian / Yukian Coast Yuki
Huchnom
Yuki
Central California Ethnobotany  
Common Name Scientific Name Use Comment
Alkali Bulrush Schoenoplectus robustus (Pursh) M.T. Strong Food Roots and young shoots eaten
Basketry Stems used to make plain-twined baskets, plant made into the heavy hoop used at the opening of the conical burden basket, root used to form the black part of the basket design.
Building Stems used for thatch and foundation material
Clothing Skins used as swaddling clothes or soft padding.
Cordage Root used as a weft or sewing material.
American Bulrush Schoenoplectus americanus (Pers.) Volk. ex Schinz & R. Keller Basketry Root used to form the black part of the basket design.
American Vetch Vicia americana Muhl. ex Willd. Cordage Stout roots used for tying.
Arrowleaf Balsamroot Balsamorhiza sagittata (Pursh) Nutt. Food Parched, pulverizes, dried seed used for food
Arroyo Willow Salix lasiolepis Benth. Basketry Young shoots and stems used
Cordage Tough inner fiber used to make garments, rope
Graineries Stems used
Medicine Numerous uses
Bangiaceae Porphyra lanceolata (Setchell) G. M. Smith Food Fresh seaweed baked and eaten, fresh seaweed dried for later use, plant made into a cake, cooked in earth oven and stored for winter consumption.
Bigelow's Tobacco Nicotiana quadrivalvis var. bigelovii (Torr.) DeWolf Smoking Dried leaves used as tobacco
Bigleaf Maple Acer macrophyllum Pursh Basketry Withes used as coarse twine warp and weft in the manufacture of baskets.
Cordage Withes used as coiling thread.
Bigseed Biscuitroot Lomatium macrocarpum (Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray) Coult. & Rose Spice Sweet seed used to flavor tea and pinole.
Food Young leaves used for food
Birchleaf Mountain Mahogany Cercocarpus montanus var. glaber (S. Wats.) F.L. Martin Tools Used to make digging sticks
Weapons Used to make bows, arrows, and clubs
Bishop Pine Pinus muricata D. Don Food Nuts eaten fresh, roasted, dried for later use
Basketry Root used
Tools Pitch used for glue
Blueblossom Ceanothus Ceanothus thyrsiflorus Eschsch. Soap Fresh or dried flowers mixed with water and used as a soap for washing hands, face and body.
Blue Elderberry Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis (L.) R. Bolli Food Berries eaten fresh, dried for later use, made into jams, jellies, sauces
Medicinal Numerous
Basketry Stems, bark, leaves used to make 4 colors of dye
Music Stems used to make clapper sticks and whistles
Weapons Stems used to make arrows
Bowltube Iris Iris macrosiphon Torr. Wesapons Used to make the strongest deer snares.
Blue Oak Quercus douglasii Hook. & Arn. Food Acorns stored up to one year, ground, leached, cooked into mush, soup, cakes, bread
Bolander's Yampah Perideridia bolanderi (Gray) A. Nels. & J.F. Macbr. Famine food Served as substitute food when acorn supply was reduced eaten raw or cooked in baskets
Broadleaf Cattail Typha latifolia L. Food Roots and young shoots eaten raw, roots dried and ground into a meal, pollen used to  make cakes and mush, stems peeled and eaten, roots and inner stalks baked in ashes and eaten, 
Brown Dogwood Cornus glabrata Benth. Basketry Used as basket material.
Buena Mujer Mentzelia sp. Food Pulverized seed made into pinole
Bull Kelp Nereocystis luetkeana (Mert.) Post. & Rupr. Food Thick part of the stalk cooked in an oven or in hot ashes, stalks cut into lengthwise strips and dried for winter use.
Cordage Dried, shredded stems used as cordage or fish line.
Bush Lupine Lupinus arboreus Sims Cordage Root fibers used for string, root fibers used to make string for fish nets, deer and rabbit nets, gill nets and carrying nets.
Butterfly Mariposa Lily Calochortus venustus Dougl. ex Benth. Food Roasted bulbs used for food
California Black Oak Quercus kelloggii Newberry Food Acorns stored up to one year, ground, leached, cooked into mush, soup, cakes, bread
Basketry Withes used to make basket rims.
California Blackberry  Rubus ursinus Cham. & Schlecht. Food Berries eaten fresh
California Buckeye Aesculus californica (Spach) Nutt. Poison Ground seeds used to kill fish
Famine food Ground seeds leached, cooked, eaten
Housing Fronds used for thatching
California Buckthorn Frangula californica ssp. californica Poison Berries considered poisonous
California Buttercup Ranunculus californicus Benth. Food Dried, stored, parched, pulverized seeds used for food
California Compassplant Wyethia angustifolia (DC.) Nutt. Food  Raw stem used for food
California Flannelbush or Fremontia Fremontodendron californicum (Torr.) Coville Cordage Barks used for tying acorn graineries, making netting, etc.
California Goosefoot Chenopodium californicum (S. Wats.) S. Wats. Cleaner Scraped roots and water used to produce detergent foam
California Huckelberry  Vaccinium ovatum Pursh Food Raw fruit used for food
California Harebell Asyneuma prenanthoides (Dur.) McVaugh Food Bulbs eaten in winter and early spring
Tools Wood used to make cradle boards
California Hazelnut Corylus cornuta var. californica (A. DC.) Sharp Food Nuts eaten
Basketry Wood used for basket rims
Weapons Wood used for arrow shafts
Fishing Stems used for fish traps
California Helianthella Helianthella californica Gray Food Flowers cooked and eaten
California Juniper Juniperus californica Carr. Food Berries used
California Laurel Umbellularia californica (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt. Food Kernels roasted or ground into flour for cakes
California Live Oak Quercus agrifolia Née Food Acorns stored up to one year, ground, leached, cooked into mush, soup, cakes, bread
California Lomantium Lomatium californicum (Nutt.) Mathias & Constance Food Young stems eaten raw
California Manroot Marah fabaceus (Naud.) Naud. ex Greene Poison Mashed root used in pools in the river and in tidepools at the beach for poisoning fish.
California Redbud Cercis canadensis var. texensis (S. Wats.) M. Hopkins Basketry Red bark used as design material for baskets, white, inner bark used in basketry, strips of switch bark used for brown design or bark peeled to show the white used to make baskets, peeled withes used as coarse twine and coil thread in the manufacture of baskets, unpeeled withes used as decorative coil thread in the manufacture of baskets.
California Sycamore Platanus racemosa Nutt. Housing Limbs used in building
California Walnut Juglans californica S. Wats. Food Nuts eaten
California Wild Grape Vitis californica Benth. Food Fruit eaten fresh
Basketry Roots and vines used for weaving, sap used as a binder
Cordage Vines used for rope and split to make thread
California White Oak Quercus lobata Née Food Acorns stored up to one year, ground, leached, cooked into mush, soup, cakes, bread
Basketry Bark used to dye redbud strands black
Medicine Numerous uses
Canada Clocklebur Xanthium strumarium var. canadense (P. Mill.) Torr. & Gray Food  Seeds eaten as pinole
Canadian Horseweed Food Raw pulverized leaves and tender tops, flavor similar to onions, used for food
Canyon Live Oak Quercus chrysolepis Liebm. Food Acorns stored up to one year, ground, leached, cooked into mush, soup, cakes, bread
California Scrub Oak Quercus dumosa Nutt. Food Acorns stored up to one year, ground, leached, cooked into mush, soup, cakes, bread
California Wildrose Rosa californica Cham. & Schlecht. Food Fresh fruit used for food
Carmel Ceanothus Ceanothus griseus (Trel. ex B.L. Robins.) McMinn Soap Fresh or dried flowers mixed with water and used as a soap for washing hands, face and body.
Chia Salvia columbariae Benth. Drink Seeds mixed into water
Food Seeds eaten raw, ground into flour to make mush or cakes, seeds eaten on long journeys
Medicine Several uses
Chufa Flatsedge Cyperus esculentus L. Food Tubers on the rootstock eaten raw, baked or boiled like potatoes.
Cleveland's Tarweed Hemizonia congesta ssp. clevelandii (Greene) Babcock & Hall Food Seeds used to make pinole
Coastal Redwood Sequoia sempervirens (Lamb. ex D. Don) Endl. Basketry Young shoots used
Coastal Tarweed Hemizonia corymbosa (DC.) Torr. & Gray Food Seeds eaten as pinole
Coastal Tidytips Layia platyglossa (Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Gray Food Seeds eaten as pinole
Coast Labradortea Ledum ×columbianum Piper (pro sp.) [glandulosum × groenlandicum] Drink Leaves used to make tea
Coast Range Mariposa Lily Calochortus vestae Purdy Food Baked bulbs eaten like baked potatoes.
Common Chamise Adenostoma fasciculatum Hook. & Arn. Weapons Wood used for bows and arrows, gum used to attach arrowheads and feathers to shaft
Basketry Wood used
Common Cowparsnip Heracleum maximum Bartr. Food Boiled roots and foliage used for food
Container Hollow stems used to carry water.
Toys Dried, hollow stems used as toy blowguns to shoot berries or small pebbles.
Common Deerweed Lotus scoparius (Nutt.) Ottley Building Foliage used for house thatching
Common Madia Madia elegans D. Don ex Lindl. Food Pulverized seeds eaten as a dry meal
Common Yarrow Achillea millefolium L. Medicine Numerous uses
Conjested Snakelily Dichelostemma capitatum ssp. capitatum Food Baked or boiled corms eaten like baked or boiled potatoes.
Cows Clover Trifolium wormskioldii Lehm. Food Leaves and flowers eaten raw, never cooked or dried
Crevice Alumroot Heuchera micrantha Dougl. ex Lindl. Food Boiled or steamed leaves eaten in spring
Crimson Columbine Aquilegia formosa Fisch. ex DC. Food Early spring shoots boiled and eaten
Datura or Jimson Weed Datura wrightii Regel Medicine Numerous Uses (Deadly poisonous)
Densflower Spike Primrose Epilobium densiflorum (Lindl.) Hoch & Raven Food Parched, pulverized dried seed used for food
Deerbrush Ceanothus integerrimus Hook. & Arn. Basketry Withes used as overlay twine weft bases in the manufacture of baskets.
Diamond Fairyfan Clarkia rhomboidea Dougl. ex Hook. Food Seeds eaten raw or parched and finely pounded.
Digger Pine or California Foothill Pine Pinus sabiniana Dougl. ex Dougl. Food Nuts eaten fresh, roasted, boiled,  pounded, or saved for later use, or pounded into flour, cones eaten
Basketry Sprouts used
Building Bark used for house coverings, needles used for thatch, wood used for planks
Tattooing Soot from burned pitch used
Tools Pitch used as glue
Douglas Fir Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii Basketry Twigs used as coarse twine warp in the manufacture of baskets.
Douglas Sagewort Artemisia douglasiana Bess. Fishing Burned branches used as torches during night fishing
Tobacco Dried leaves smoked
Dwarf Rose Rosa gymnocarpa Nutt. Food Fresh fruit eaten
Durango Root Datisca glomerata (K. Presl) Baill. Dye Roots used as a yellow or red dye
Eastwood's Manzanita Arctostaphylos glandulosa Eastw. Food Dried, pounded berries stored for later use in making pinole, cakes, or mixed with water
Field Horsetail Equisetum arvense L. Basketry Roots used
Fool's Onion Triteleia hyacinthina (Lindl.) Greene Food Bulbs steamed in earth oven and eaten
Foothill Clover Trifolium ciliolatum Benth. Food Steamed clover eaten or dried for later use
Fringed Redmaids Calandrinia ciliata (Ruiz & Pavón) DC. Food Seeds, in great quantities, used for pinole, raw foliage used for food 
Fremont's Cottonwood Populus fremontii S. Wats. Food Catkins and pods eaten raw as snacks
Fringed Redmaids Calandrinia ciliata (Ruiz & Pavón) DC. Food Oily, pulverized seed pressed into cakes for eating
Gairdner's Yampah Perideridia gairdneri ssp. gairdneri Food Boiled and eaten like a potato, seeds used for pinole, fresh tops eaten as greens.
Giant Horsetail Equisetum telmateia var. braunii (Milde) Milde Tool Leafless, fertile stems used as sandpaper in smoothing arrow shafts and drill shafts.
Glue Plant used as binding to fasten feathers onto the coat of a wale-pu.
Goldeneggs Camissonia ovata (Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray) Raven Food Raw, boiled, or steamed foliage used
Golden Chinkapin Chrysolepis chrysophylla var. chrysophylla Food Nuts eaten raw, roasted or pounded into a meal, nuts stored in their shell for winter.
Gordon's Mockorange Philadelphus lewisii Pursh Weapons Older, less pithy wood used to make bows, young, very pithy shoots used to make arrows.
Grassy Tarweed Madia gracilis (Sm.) Keck & J. Clausen ex Applegate Food Parched, pulverized seed made into an oily meal and readily picked up in lumps
Greenleaf Manzanita Arctostaphylos patula Greene Food Berries eaten
Hairy Brackenfern Pteridium aquilinum var. pubescens Underwood Basketry Root pounded to remove bark, bark core split into layers and used as material for basket design, roots used as decorative coil thread and decorative overlay twine in the manufacture of baskets.
Hairy Manzanita Arctostaphylos columbiana Piper Tools Wood used for tools and awl handles
Ceremony Ceremonial fires for bright light
Harvest Clusterlily Brodiaea coronaria (Salisb.) Engl. Food Bulbs steamed in earth oven and eaten, corns roasted and eaten
Hayfield Tarweed Hemizonia congesta ssp. luzulifolia (DC.) Babcock & Hall Food Seeds used to make pinole
Hedgehog Mushroom Dentinum repandum Food Baked on hot stones, in the oven or fried.
Hind's Black Walnut Juglans hindsii (Jepson) Jepson ex R.E. Sm. Food Sweet nut meat dried and stored for later use, sweet nut meat eaten fresh.
Dye Nut husk used in dying bulrush root a black color for making basket design.
Hinds' Willow Salix exigua Nutt. Basketry Young shoots and roots used
Medicine Numerous uses
Hollyleaf Cherry Prunus americana Marsh. Food Fruit eaten fresh
Famine food Seeds cracked, ground, leached, cooked, eaten
Hollyleaf Redberry Rhamnus ilicifolia Kellogg Medicine Numerous uses
Incense Cedar Calocedrus decurrens (Torr.) Florin Building Wood and bark used as building materials
Basketry Roots used as overlay twine warps and overlay twine weft bases in the manufacture of baskets.
Interior Live Oak Quercus wislizeni A. DC. Food Acorns stored up to one year, ground, leached, cooked into mush, soup, cakes, bread
Kellogg's Yampah Perideridia kelloggii (Gray) Mathias Food Seeds used to make pinole, young greens eaten raw
Tools Roots bundled together to make a hair brush or scrub brush.
Klamath Plum Prunus subcordata Benth. Food Fruit used
Lambsquarters Chenopodium album L. Food Boiled green used for food
Leopard Lily Lilium pardalinum Kellogg Food Roots steamed and eaten
Littleleaf Mountain Mahogany Cercocarpus intricatus S. Wats. Tools Used to make digging sticks
Weapons Used to make bows, arrows, clubs
Longtube Iris Iris tenuissima Dykes Weapons Used to make the strongest deer snares.
Mariposa Manzanita Arctostaphylos viscida ssp. mariposa (Dudley) P.V. Wells Food Berries eaten
Drink Berries used to make cider
Mendocino Sedge Carex mendocinensis Olney Basketry Roots used in basketry
Mexican Whorled Milkweed Asclepias fascicularis Dcne. Food Boiled greens eaten
Cordage Stem fiber used
Miner's Lettuce Claytonia perfoliata ssp. perfoliata Food Raw stems, leaves, blossoms used for food
Mosquito Bills Dodecatheon hendersonii Gray Food Leaves and roots roasted in ashes and eaten.
Mount Diablo Globelily Calochortus pulchellus Dougl. ex Benth. Food Corms eaten raw or roasted.
Musk Monkeyflower Mimulus moschatus Dougl. ex Lindl. Food Boiled leaves used for food
Naked Buckwheat Eriogonum nudum var. pubiflorum Benth. Utensil Hollow stems used as straws
Food Sour young stems eaten as greens
Oceanspray Holodiscus discolor (Pursh) Maxim. Furnitues Long branches used to make baby baskets
Weapons Long branches used to make arrows.
Oneleaf Onion Allium unifolium Kellogg Food Bulbs eaten raw or fried
Oniongrass Melica bulbosa Geyer ex Porter & Coult. Food Raw roots pounded like pinole.
Oregon Ash Fraxinus latifolia Benth. Tools Wood used for digging sticks
Smoking Used to make tobacco pipes.
Oregon Grape Mahonia sp. Dye Fruit used to make yellow dye
Oregon White Oak Quercus garryana Dougl. ex Hook. Food Acorns stored up to one year, ground, leached, cooked into mush, soup, cakes, bread
Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus Food Cooked on hot stones, baked in the oven or fried.
Pacific Dewberry Rubus vitifolius Cham. & Schlecht. Food Fruits eaten
Pacific Hound's Tongue Used as basket material. Food Roots cooked and used for food
Pacific Madrone Arbutus menziesii Pursh Food Berries eaten fresh or roasted, dried for later use
Drink Berried crushed for a refreshing drink
Toys Bark used by children as sleds
Medicine Numerous uses
Pacific Monardella Monardella odoratissima Benth. Drink Decoction of stems and flower heads used for beverage
Pacific Ninebark Physocarpus capitatus (Pursh) Kuntze Food Berries eaten raw
Weapon Straight stems used to make arrows
Pacific Peavine Lathyrus vestitus Nutt. Food Greens and raw seeds used for food
Pacific Yew Taxus brevifolia Nutt. Weapons Wood used to make bows
Basketry Roots used
Pacific willow Salix lucida ssp. lasiandra (Benth.) E. Murr. Basketry Stems and young shoots used
Medicine Numerous uses
Pale Serviceberry Amelanchier pallida Greene Food Berries eaten fresh and dried for future use
Building Stems and foliage used for thatching
Pink Honeysuckle Lonicera hispidula var. vacillans (Benth.) Gray Smoking Stems used for clay elbow pipes
Tattoos Burned wood ashes made into a paste for tattooing.
Ponderosa Pine Pinus ponderosa P.& C. Lawson Food Nuts eaten
Basketry Roots and straight stems used, roots used as the overlay twine warps and overlay twine weft bases in the manufacture of baskets.
Building Wood used to frame houses
Prettyface Triteleia ixioides (Ait. f.) Greene Food Bulbs used for food
Puget Sound Gumweed Grindelia stricta var. stricta Glue Sticky sap used a glue
Red Alder Alnus rubra Bong. Dye Inner bark chewed and used as a dull red dye.
Redshank Adenostoma sparsifolium Torr. Food Seeds eaten
Building Popular construction material
Clothing  Fibrous stripped bark used to make women's skirts
Weapons Wood used to make arrowheads
Red Willow Salix bonplandiana Kunth Basketry Young shoots and limbs used
Medicine Numerous uses
River Bulrush Schoenoplectus fluviatilis (Torr.) M.T. Strong Basketry Root used to form the black part of the basket design.
Rusty Popcornflower Plagiobothrys nothofulvus (Gray) Gray Food Young leaves eaten as greens
Salal Gaultheria shallon Pursh Food Raw or cooked berries used for food
Salmonberry Rubus spectabilis Pursh Food Berries eaten fresh
Saltmarsh Bulrush Schoenoplectus maritimus (L.) Lye Basketry Root stock fibers used as design material for baskets, grass used for basketry.
Sandmat Manzanita Arctostaphylos pumila Nutt. Drink Berries made into cider
Santa Barbara Sedge Carex barbarae Dewey Basketry Woody root fibers used as the white background in baskets, white, woody center of the root used as a sewing element in coiled baskets and in twining.
Sea Palm Postelsia palmaeformis Ruprecht Food Fresh stem chewed raw or baked in an oven or hot ashes, stems cut into long strips and sun dried for winter use.
Seaside Buckwheat Eriogonum latifolium Sm. Medicine Numerous uses
Scouringrush Horsetail Equisetum hyemale L. Basketry Roots used
Seep Monkeyflower Mimulus guttatus DC. Food Boiled leaves used for food
Skunkbush Sumac Rhus trilobata Nutt. Drink Berries mixed with water
Food Berries eaten fresh, dried, ground into flour
Dye Bark and leaves
Basketry Important component of basketry
Sierra Mint Pycnanthemum californicum Torr. Medicine Decoction taken for colds
Sierran Currant Ribes nevadense Kellogg Food Raw berries used for food
Sierran Gooseberry Ribes roezlii Regel Food Raw, pulverized berries used for food
Short Lily Calochortus amabilis Purdy Food Baked or boiled bulbs eaten like baked or boiled potatoes
Showy Milkweed Asclepias speciosa Torr. Clothing Stem fiber shredded to make women's skirts
Cordage Stem fiber used to make two ply string
Showy Tarweed Madia elegans ssp. densifolia (Greene) Keck Food Seeds used to make pinole
Slender Oat Avena barbata Pott ex Link Food Parched, stone boiled seeds pulverized and eaten as mush or soup
Spearmint Mentha spicata L. Drink Leaves used for tea
Sticky Whiteleaf Manzanita Arctostaphylos viscida Parry Food Berries eaten
Drink Berries used to make cider
Stinging Nettle Urtica dioica ssp. holosericea (Nutt.) Thorne Cordage Stems furnish string and twine for netting, bow strings, thatching, etc.
Food Leaves boiled as greens or to make soup
Sugar Pine Pinus lambertiana Dougl. Food Nuts eaten, sugar eaten as delicacy, pitch chewed for gum
Decorative Seeds used as beads
Sweetcicely Osmorhiza berteroi DC. Food Boiled leaves used for food
Tanoak Lithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Rehd. Food Pulverized, leached acorns used to make mush, gruel, soup, bread
Thimbleberry Rubus parviflorus Nutt. Food Berries eaten raw
Tools Leaves used to wrap food for baking.
Timber Mushroom Boletus edulis Food Baked on hot stones, baked in the oven, or fried
Dye Bark used
Tolmie Startulip Calochortus tolmiei Hook. & Arn. Food Baked or boiled bulbs eaten like baked or boiled potatoes.
Tomcat clover Trifolium willdenowii Spreng. Food Raw or steamed buds eaten before plant bloomed
Toyon Heteromeles arbutifolia var. arbutifolia Food Berries eaten raw, cooked, or dried for later use
Tule Scirpus sp. Basketry Used to make throw-away baskets
Boats Reeds used to build boats
Housing Used as thatch and mats
Turkey Mullein Croton setigerus Hook. Fishing Pounded roots thrown into pools to stupefy fish
Turkey Pea Sanicula tuberosa Torr. Food Tuberous roots eaten raw
Twining Snakelily Dichelostemma volubile (Kellogg) Heller Food Bulbs eaten
Vernalpool Clusterlily Brodiaea minor (Benth.) S. Wats. Food Roots steamed and eaten.
Water Parsley Lotus scoparius (Nutt.) Ottley Food Raw or cooked stems used for food
Wavyleaf Soaproot Chlorogalum pomeridianum (DC.) Kunth Food Leaves eaten fresh or stored for later use
Poison Bulb used to poison fish
Cleaner Bulb used as a soap
Misc. Fibrous roots used to make brushes
Western Brackenfern Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn Food Young fronds eaten raw or cooked
Basketry Roots used
Western Chokecherry Prunus virginiana var. demissa (Nutt.) Torr. Food Fruits used for food, late season only
Basketry Withes used as overlay twine weft bases in the manufacture of baskets.
White Alder Alnus rhombifolia Nutt. Medicine Numerous uses
Basketry Roots used
Dye Inner bark and fresh bark used
Weapons Young shoots used to make arrows
Whiteleaf Manzanita Arctostaphylos manzanita Parry Medicine Several uses
Drink Berries mixed with water
Food Berries made into bread, mush, or pinole, or stored for later use
Ceremony Burned for cleansing (smudging)
Soap Leaves boiled and yellowish red extract used as a cleansing body wash
Winecup Fairyfan Clarkia purpurea ssp. viminea (Dougl. ex Hook.) H.F. & M.E. Lewis Seed dried or parched, pulverized and used for food
Wooly Angelica Angelica tomentosa S. Wats. Food Peeled stems eaten raw
Woolyleaf Manzanita Arctostaphylos tomentosa (Pursh) Lindl. Drink Berries used to make cider
Food Seeds ground to make flour for mush, biscuits
Smoke Leaves smoked
Woolypod Milkweed Asclepias eriocarpa Benth. Clothing Stem fibers shredded to make women's skirts
Cordage Stem fibers used to make two ply string
Wormwood Artemisia dracunculus L. Fishing Burned branches used as torches during night fishing
Yellow Mariposa Lily Calochortus luteus Dougl. ex Lindl. Food Roasted bulbs used for food, eaten like potatoes
Yerba Buena Clinopodium douglasii (Benth.) Kuntze Medicine Numerous uses
Drink Leaves made into tea, sometimes with mint
Yerba Mansa Anemopsis californica (Nutt.) Hook. & Arn.
ETHNOBOTANY BIBLIOGRAPHY
     Barrett, S. A. and E. W. Gifford 1933 Miwok Material Culture. Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee 2(4):11 (p. 166)
     Bocek, Barbara R. 1984 Ethnobotany of Costanoan Indians, California, Based on Collections by John P. Harrington. Economic Botany 38(2):240-255
     Curtin, L. S. M. 1957 Some Plants Used by the Yuki Indians ... II. Food Plants. The Masterkey 31:85-94
     Gifford, E. W. 1967 Ethnographic Notes on the Southwestern Pomo. Anthropological Records 25:10-15 (p. 13)
     Goodrich, Jennie and Claudia Lawson 1980 Kashaya Pomo Plants. Los Angeles. American Indian Studies Center, University of California, Los Angeles
     Merriam, C. Hart 1966 Ethnographic Notes on California Indian Tribes. University of California Archaeological Research Facility, Berkeley
     Sapir, Edward and Leslie Spier 1943 Notes on the Culture of the Yana. Anthropological Records 3(3):252-253
     Swartz, Jr., B. K. 1958 A Study of Material Aspects of Northeastern Maidu Basketry. Kroeber Anthropological Society Publications 19:67-84