CHAPTER TWO - THE FIRST EUROPEANS IN NORTH AMERICA

 

THE EXPLORERS

 

LEIF EIRIKSON - In of about 1001, Viking Leif Eirikson, following and earlier route described by Bjarni Hejolfson, arrived along several points on the Canadian east coast.  Other Vikings may have later sailed into the Great Lakes region.
CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS - Though Christopher Columbus arrived at the island of Hispaniola in 1492, he never stepped foot on what would eventually be the United States.  His ship, the Santa Maria, ran aground on a coral reef off of the Caribbean island and he and his men were rescued by Arawak Indians.  Columbus would make three more voyages to the New World leaving a path of death and disease returning to Europe with captured Indian slaves and claimed that he had found India.
JOHN CABOT - Italian explorer Giovanni Caboto sailed to the New World in 1497 under the flag of England on the small ship Matthew.  He apparently landed somewhere between Maine, Labrador, or Newfoundland.  His ship and crew were lost on his second voyage.
PONCE DE LEON - The Spanish crown gave Ponce de Leon, governor of Puerto Rico, permission to explore Florida in 1512.  He was searching for riches and a "Fountain of Youth."  He was repulsed by the Calusa tribe off of present Ft. Meyers who later began attacking Spanish ships.  De Leon was mortally wounded by the Calusa on his second voyage in a battle in which numerous Calusa perished.
GIOVANNI DA VERRAZANO - An Italian sailing under the French flag, Verrazano first arrived at Cape Fear in 1524 on the ship La Dauphine.  He sailed north making several discoveries including New York Bay, Block Island, and Narragansett Bay.  He reported good relations with the Narragansett and Delaware Indians.
CABEZA DE VACA - A Spanish colony of 400 at present Tampa Bay was expelled by the Timucua Indians.  Traveling northwest along the gulf coast, they were further harassed until they escaped on small boats.  Only eight made it to Galveston Bay in 1528, and only Cabeza de Vaca and his black slave Esteban made the eight year journey back to Mexico.  De Vaca journal give an important insight to the tribes of early Texas.
JAQUES CARTIER - Frenchman Jacques Cartier established friendly relation with the Micmac Indians of the southeastern Canadian  coast in 1535.  He established friendly relations with the Iroquois along the St. Lawrence River on his second voyage on year later.  He and his sons continued to trade on behalf of the French with the Iroquoian tribes of the Great Lakes until 1541.  Noted that the Iroquois were at war with each other.
FRAY MARCOS DE NIZA - Traveling with Esteban in 1539, who was killed by the Zuni, Marcos de Niza started the Severn Golden Cities of Cibola rumor.
FRANCISCO DE ULLOA - Ulloa explored the California coast in 1539 for Spain.
HERNANDO DE ALARCON - Spaniard Hernando de Alarcon sailed 100 miles up the Colorado River meeting the Yuma and Mojave tribes in 1540.
FRANCISCO VASQUEZ DE CORONADO - Coronado, leading an army of 300 conquistadors in 1540 for Spain, subjugated the Pueblo tribes of the southwest as he searched for the Seven Cities of Cibola.  He returned to Mexico empty handed in 1542.
HERNANDO DE SOTO - Beginning in 1539, Spanish soldier de Soto cut a path of destruction through the southeast from present Florida to Texas to ultimately die of a unknown disease along the banks of the southern Mississippi River in 1542.  He had conflicts with the Timuca, Appalachee, Muskhogee, Mobile, Natchez, Yuchi, and numerous other tribes.
JUAN RODRIQUEZ CABRILLO - Cabrillo, leading a three ship armada in 1542, discoverd San Diego Bay.
SIR FRANCIS DRAKE - Drake sailing the Golden Hind explored the California coast and claimed the region for Britain in 1577.
SEBASTIAN VISCAINO - Viscaino sailed up the California coast from Mexico and discovered Monterey. 
SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN - De Champlain, in 1603, established trade relations with both Iroquoian and Algonquian speaking tribes of the Great Lakes region, founded Quebec and is considered the father of New France.  He noted that the Iroquois had formed a confederacy.
HENRY HUDSON - Sailing for the Netherlands, Hudson claimed New York for the Dutch in 1609.
JUAN BAUTISTA DE ANZA - De Anza arrived in southern California via a land route
BRUNO HEZETA - Commander Hezeta explored the northwest coast to ultimately be killed by either Quileute or Chehalis Indians
GEORGE VANCOUVER - Captain Vancouver explored and charted the northwest coast

 

THE COLONISTS

 

ROANOKE - The Roanoke Colony was founded in Virginia in 1585 by about 100 British subjects only to be found abandoned in 1590 with the words "CROATOAN" carved on a tree.
NEW MEXICO - The Spanish under Juan de Oņate colonized New Mexico in 1598 with its capital in Santa Fe.  He forced the Pueblo Indians to swear vassalage to Spain and to Christianize.
JAMESTOWN - The Jamestown Colony was founded in 1607 under the charter of King James I in present Virginia among the Powhatan Confederacy.  After a war and some period of peace, tobacco entrepreneur John Rolfe married Chief Powhatan's daughter Pocahontas and took her to England where she died in 1617.
PLYMOUTH - Pilgrims founded Plymouth Colony in 1620 while fleeing religious persecution in England aboard the Mayflower.  They feasted with the Wampanoag Indians in 1621 thus participating the first Thanksgiving.
ALTA CALIFORNIA - The first or 21 missions was founded by Junipero Serra in San Diego in 1769.  This missions would subjugate thousands of California Indians resulting in the deaths of most.
 

Chapter Two Review Questions                                      Name ___________________________

 

1. Who first led the conquistadors into New Mexico?

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2. Which explorer was previously governor of Puerto Rico?

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3. Who discovered New York Bay? 

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4. Who first sailed the California coast?

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5. Who claimed New York for the Dutch?

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6. Who first noted that the Iroquois had formed a confederacy?
7. Which colony was abandoned with the word "CROATOAN" carved on a tree?

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8. Who first began building missions in Alta California?

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9. In which colony was the first Thanksgiving held?

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10. Who first colonized New Mexico?

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