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Cherokee

 

 

Ethnie: CHEROKEE (TSALAGI)
Language Group: Cherokee
Family: Southern Iroquoian
Stock: Iroquoian
Phylum: Macro-Siouan
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
Speakers 11, 905 to 22,500 speakers (1986 Durbin Feeling, Cherokee Nation OK)
      The Cherokee were a large sedentary hunter/farmer nation which ranged over the southern end of the Appalachian chain.  They were probably driven south from the area of Pennsylvania about 3,000 B.P.  They apparently took over territories evacuated by Siouan ancestors.
      The Cherokee eventually adopted a great deal of the European cultural practices resulting in them being considered "civilized."  Nonetheless, a state of war existed between them and their nation neighbors, and they had numerous conflicts with Whites as well.
      About 15% of the Cherokee voluntarily migrated to Arkansas in 1818, receiving lands ceded by the Osage.  War then ensued between them and the Osage.  Most of the remaining tribe were forced to relocated to the Indian Territory (later Oklahoma) as a result of the Removal Act and the "Trail of Tears" which resulted in the deaths of 4,000.  There they joined their tribesmen who had originally migrated west.  Considerable intra-tribal conflicts resulted from the politics of removal eventually evolving into a Cherokee Civil War.  After a decade of peace in the 1850's, the Cherokee once again divided as a result of the Civil War with factions siding with both the Union and the Confederacy.
      A small percentage of the tribe remained in North Carolina.  They formally separated from the Oklahoma Cherokee in 1890.  The Oklahoma Cherokee nation was terminated and their lands were granted in severalty.  Numerous Cherokee tribes and groups exist in other states.
Aboriginal Locations (Dialects [# of Villages])
AL     (Unknown [5])
GA     (Lower [8], Middle [5], Overhill [6], Unknown [37])
NC     (Lower [1], Middle [11], Overhill [25], Unknown [25])
SC     (Lower [11], Middle [2], Overhill [2], Unknown [16])
TN     (Lower [1], Middle [2], Overhill [11], Unknown [16])
An additional 20 or so villages of unknown location are believed to have existed.  The Cherokee hunted at least into Arkansas, Kentucky, Virginia, and West Virginia
Present Locations (Federally Recognized)
NC   Cherokee Reservation, Cherokee
OK   Cherokee Tribe, Tahlequah
         United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma, Tahlequah
Present Locations (Not Federally Recognized)
Tribe Present Population
Appalachian Cherokee Nation, Inc., Thornburg VA ?
Cherokee Nation of Mexico, Zaragosa COA (Federally recognized by Mexico) ?
Cherokee of California, Marysville CA ?
Cherokees of South Carolina, Oconee County SC ?
Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokee, Cunning GA  ?
Northern Cherokee Nation of the Old Louisiana Territory, Columbia MO ?
Tsalagiyi Nvdagi (Texas Cherokee), Troup TX ?
Groups with Federal Recognition Petitions
State Group
AL Cherokees of Jackson County Alabama, Higton
Cherokees of Southeast Alabama, Dothan
The Langley Band of Chickamogee of Cherokee Indians of the Southeastern United States, Birmingham
GA Tuscola United Cherokee Tribe of Florida and Alabama, Inc., Geneva
Cane Break Band of Eastern Cherokees, Dahlogega
Cherokee Indians of Georgia, Inc., Albany
Georgia Band of Eastern Cherokees, Dahonega
Southeastern Cherokee Confederacy, Albany
MO Amonsoquoth Tribe of Cherokee, Deering
Northern Cherokee Nation of the Old Louisiana Territory, Columbia MO
Northern Cherokee Tribe of Indians, Independence
Cherokee Nation of Arkansas and Missouri, Fair Play
NC Cherokee Indians of Robeson and Adjoining Counties, Red Springs
Cherokee Indians of Hoke County, Inc. Lumber Bridge
Cherokee-Powhatan Indian Association, Roxboro
OR Northeast Cherokee Wolf Band, Talent
TN Red Clay Inter-Tribal Indian Band, Southeastern Cherokee Confederacy, Inc., Ooltewah
Etowah Cherokee Nation, Cleveland
Year History
1540 Only one Cherokee village mentioned in De Soto narratives near present Murphy NC, called "Chalaque" or "Xalaque"
1566 May have been visited by Pardo
1674 Woodward said that some Cherokee were living on upper branches of the Savannah River
1684 South Carolina government made treaty with the Cherokee signed by five chiefs of the Toxawa and three of the Keowa
1690 James Moore and Col. Maurice Mathews journeyed across Appalachians in search of gold but repelled by Indians, probably Cherokee
1693 Some Cherokee chiefs ventured to Charleston to ask for protection against Catawba, Shawnee, and Congaree
1700 Acquired guns
1701 A part of five French Canadians penetrated Cherokee country
1711 Began trading furs
1713 310 Cherokee took part in Moore's expedition against the Tuscarora under Captains Harford and Thurston; 70 Cherokee originally joined Catawba and other northern Indians in the outbreak of the Yamasee War but soon withdrew and made peace with the British; Cherokee and Chickasaw expelled the Shawnee from the Cumberland Valley
1730 After peace mission by Sir Alexander Cuming, seven Cherokee were taken to visit English court
1736 A Swiss named Christian Gottlieb Priber, represented as a French Jesuit captured by British and imprisoned in Fredrica, Georgia where he died
1738 Smallpox epidemic resulted in 50% depopulation, soon received Shawnee refugees of Chickasaw war, part of Yuchi and Tuskegee came to live with tribe
1755 Conflicts with Creeks culminated in victory of Taliwa after which the Creeks removed from the Tennessee Valley; settlers pushed the Cherokee from their northern towns
1759 At first allied with the British in the French and Indian War assisting them in an attack on Fort Duquesne, but British treachery resulted in their changing sides in the conflict
1760 Destroyed Fort Loudon which had been established in their country after defeating a British force of over 1,600 near present Franklin North Carolina; Col. Grant burned all of the Middle and Lower Towns forcing treaty upon tribe 
1763 Final peace between the British and Cherokee resulted in the influx of settler into Cherokee territories resulting in the ceding of land
1769 Defeated severely by the Chickasaw at the Chickasaw Oldfields
1770 Ceded more lands in Lochabar Treaty
1776 Sided with the British during the Revolutionary War eventually resulting in four major military incursions into Cherokee territories by Virginia and North Carolina generals
1777 Ceded considerable land to South Carolina and Georgia in DeWitts Corners Treaty
1783 North Carolina passed act extending boundaries further into tribal land
1784 State of Franklin formed for four years in what is now Tennessee
1785 Tribe ceded lands to Franklin in treaty at Dumplin Creek
1786 Tribe ceded lands to Franklin in treaty at Chotee Ford, treaty at Hopewell established boundaries with the United States
1792 Ceded lands in Philadelphia treaty, 700 Creek and Cherokee warriors attacked Buchanan's Station near Nashville
1793 More than one thousand Creek and Cherokee attacked and destroyed Cavitt's Station near Knoxville
1794 Peace restored at Tellico blockhouse
1804 Osage killed four Cherokee hunting in Arkansas
1806 Lands ceded in Tellico treaty
1813 Killed 21 Osage in retaliation for the killing of a chief
1817 Additional lands ceded in treaty with Gen. Andrew Jackson at Cherokee Agency; dissatisfaction with the terms of the treaty, Chief The Bowle removed and his band removed to Spanish territory with remnants of other tribes ... later joined by Tahchee and other chiefs
1818 Osage ceded Arkansas lands to Cherokee for Oklahoma lands; 3,500 Cherokee voluntarily migrated to Arkansas
1819 Lands ceded in Washington D.C. treaty
1820 Eastern Cherokee formed a government modeled after that of the United States, many relocated to Arkansas and formed light horse self police
1821 Sequoya created syllabary, Cherokee learned to read in their language; 300 mostly Cherokee killed 30-100 Osage in battle
1823 Sequoya moved to Arkansas; Cherokee, Delaware, Kickapoo, Miami, and Illinois united against Osage to try to gain Oklahoma territories
1824 Parts of the Bible translated into syllabary; and estimated 2,000 lawless mostly Whites, Cherokee, and Delaware in southeastern Oklahoma, Fort Towsend established to protect settlers
1826 Cherokee/Osage War; Texas Fredonian Rebellion
1827 Western Cherokee formed a constitutional form of government; San Houston joined Cherokee tribe; Texas Cherokee Chief The Bowle had Fredonia Indian leader assassinated
1828 Weekly paper the Cherokee Phoenix established in Cherokee and English
1829 Sam Houston established a store in northeastern Oklahoma allied with Creek, Osage, and Cherokee;  combined 250-300 Cherokee, Choctaw, Shawnee, and Delaware campaign against Waco, Tawakoni, and Comanche killing 300; Cherokee war party attacked Tawehash village killing all occupants; more eastern Cherokees began to remove to the west
1830 President Andrew Jackson signed Removal Act
1831 Joseph Vann elected Cherokee president, Cherokee won Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
1832 Cherokee won Worchester v. Georgia, but President Jackson refused to enforce Supreme Court rulings
1834 John Ross arrested and the offices of the Cherokee Phoenix were burned
1835 Treaty of New Echota, sold all eastern territories
1836 Texas attacked the Cherokee killing Chief The Bowle and expelling the Cherokee
1838 Forced removal under Gen. Winfield Scott and 7,000 soldiers, "Trail of Tears" to Indian Territory, 4,000 Cherokee died en route; some went to Texas  who, under Gen. Sam Houston, immediately waged war on the refugees who thereafter removed to Indian Territory (Sam Houston had been brought up among the Cherokee)
1839 6,000 Western  Cherokee (Old Settlers) with three chiefs and unwritten laws were brought together with 14,000 bitterly separated Eastern Cherokees, 2,000 Ridgeites (Treaty Party) and 12,000 Rossites who had lost 4,000 on the Trail of Tears; the Eastern had an elaborate government, a written constitution, and a court system ... intra-tribal war loomed; Treaty Party leaders John Ridge, Major Ridge, and Elias Boudinot were assassinated thereby weakening Treaty Party, Eastern and Western factions could not agree on government form resulting in civil war
1842 Qualla Reservation set aside for North Carolina Cherokee who had evaded removal by hiding in mountains
1846 Civil war settled by treaty with the United States
1850 Beginning of Cherokee golden decade even though East/West wounds had not healed
1861 Cherokee controlled by mixed blood slave owners who favored the South, most and almost all of Western Cherokees were indifferent about Civil War, Confederate Army occupied Indian Territory, tribe voted to secede from Union; 3,000 New Settler fought for the Confederacy, 1,000 Old Settlers fought for the Union, 400 North Carolina Cherokee fought for the South; Cherokee units fought at Wilson Creek and Pea Ridge and participated in the massacre of 700 pro-Union Creek trying to escape to Kansas; 
1862 John Ross allowed himself to be captures by the Union and sat out the war in Philadelphia; Cherokee Chief/General Stand Watie order Ross's house burned, 7,000 Cherokee refugees removed to Kansas to escape fighting with many freezing to death and starving
1865 Cherokee General Stand Watie last Confederate General to surrender; all previous Cherokee treaties with United States invalidated, new treaties would take land for railroad development, White settlement, and relocation of other tribes
1866 Readmitted to Union, freed Black slaves
1867 Joined by Delaware in Oklahoma
1870 Joined by Shawnee in Oklahoma
1880 Tribal ownership of lands abolished; impoverished Cherokee had leased most lands to White settlers; Whites outnumbered Cherokee in territories
1887 Dawes Act ultimately resulted in further reduction of territories
1901 Cherokee became citizens and allowed to vote
1906 Cherokee Nation terminated, lands granted in severalty
1907 Oklahoma Land Rush and statehood
1948 Present Cherokee government created with Wheeler-Howard Indian Reorganization Act
1961 Cherokee allotted $15 million by U.S. Claims Commission for Cherokee Outlet
Year Total Population AL GA NC OK SC TN Source
1650 22,000 Mooney estimate
1700 20,000 600 7,700 6,400 3,000 3,600 NAHDB calculation
1729 20,000 Swanton
1800 17,000 500 5,900 4,900 2,600 3,100 NAHDB calculation
1885 19,000 Swanton
1900 28,000 1,200 26,800 NAHDB calculation 
1902 28,106 Official
1910 31,489 Census
1930 45,238 US Indian Office
1981 48,656 BIA
1989 93,169 BIA estimate
2000 NAHDB calculation 
2002 13,079 Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians
2005 150,000 Tribal Law Journal
Other speakers of the same language:
None
Cherokee Sites:
Accounts of the Cherokee Trail of Tears  http://www.yvwiiusdinvnohii.net/articles/princes.html
Amonsoquat Tribe of Cherokee  http://www.amonsoquath.net/
Andrew Jackson v. the Cherokee Nation  http://www.thehistorynet.com/ah/bljackson/
Arkansas Cherokee Indian Nation  http://www.comanchelodge.com/chickamauga-cherokee.html
Berry, Martha, Cherokee Beadwork Artist  http://www.berrybeadwork.com/
Books of the Cherokee  http://www.si.edu/resource/faq/nmai/cherokee.htm
Boudinout, Elias (Buck Watie)  http://www.csustan.edu/english/reuben/pal/chap3/boudinot.html
Cherokee  http://www.merceronline.com/Native/native03.htm
Cherokee  http://www.nativeamericans.com/Cherokee.htm
Cherokee  http://members.aol.com/tuckermice/cherokee.html
Cherokee  http://www.emayzine.com/lectures/Cherokee.html
Cherokee  http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/cherokee.html
Cherokee  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherokee
Cherokee and Creek War Map  http://www.libs.uga.edu/darchive/hargrett/maps/1815m4.jpg
Cherokee Archival Project  http://www.rootsweb.com/~cherokee/
Cherokee Artists  http://ahalenia.com/noksi/artists.html
Cherokee Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t12
Cherokee Capital Complex  http://www.wordlink.net/Cherokee/capital.html
Cherokee Casino and Resort, Tulsa  http://www.cherokeecasino.com/
Cherokee Companion  http://www.intertribal.net/NAT/Cherokee/WebPgCC1/CC1home.htm
Cherokee County, GA History  http://www.cviog.uga.edu/Projects/gainfo/histcountymaps/cherokeehistmaps.htm
Cherokee Culture and History  http://www.native-languages.org/cherokee_culture.htm
Cherokee Culture Facts  http://www.yvwiiusdinvnohii.net/Cherokee/WendellCochran/
Cherokee Declaration of Causes ...  http://www.civilwarhome.com/cherokeecauses.htm
Cherokee Dictionary  http://www.manataka.org/page122.html
Cherokee Facts for Kids  http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/cherokee_kids.htm
Cherokee:  Fire in the Mountains  http://www.floridahistory.com/inset2.html
Cherokee Flag, OK  http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/us-chero.html
Cherokee Historical Maps  http://cherokeehistory.com/map1.html
Cherokee Historic Village  http://www.wordlink.net/Cherokee/HistoricVillage.html
Cherokee History  http://cherokeehistory.com/
Cherokee History Since 1769  http://www.tolatsga.org/Cherokee2.html
Cherokee History to 1768  http://www.tolatsga.org/Cherokee1.html
Cherokee Indian Basketry  http://www.simplybaskets.com/CherokeeBasketryInformation.html
Cherokee Indian Chiefs  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/cherokee/cherokeechiefs.htm
Cherokee Indian Museum of Western NC  http://www.westernncattractions.com/museum.htm
Cherokee Indian Removal Debate  http://www.cviog.uga.edu/Projects/gainfo/chdebate.htm
Cherokee Indian Reservation, NC  http://www.westernncattractions.com/attractn/cherres.htm
Cherokee Indian Reservation, NC  http://statelibrary.dcr.state.nc.us/nc/ncsites/cherokee.htm
Cherokee Indians  http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/CC/bmc51.html
Cherokee Indians in Georgia  http://ngeorgia.com/history/cherokee.html
Cherokee Indians of Georgia  http://cherokee-indians-of-ga-inc.0pi.com/
Cherokee Indians Smoky Mountains  http://smokymtnmall.com/mall/cindians.html
Cherokee Indians - Tsalagi  http://www.smokymtnmall.com/mall/cindians.html
Cherokee Indians Yesterday and Today  http://www.meadowthorpe.fcps.net/projects/native_americans/CherokeeIndians%20Yesterday%20and%20Today.htm
Cherokee Indian Tribe  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/cherokee/cherohist.htm
Cherokee Indian Tribe  http://www.nanations.com/cherokee/index.htm
Cherokee Jewelry  http://www.cherokeejewelry.com/
Cherokee Language  http://www.native-languages.org/cherokee.htm
Cherokee Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=CER
Cherokee Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_lang_family.asp?code=CER
Cherokee Laws  http://www.commonlaw.com/Cherokee.html
Cherokee Moons  http://powersource.com/cherokee/moons.html
Cherokee Museum  http://www.cherokeemuseum.org/
Cherokee Museum  http://www.wordlink.net/Cherokee/Museum.html
Cherokee Nation  http://www.cherokee.org/
Cherokee Nation and Indian Art  http://www.cherokeenationindianart.com/
Cherokee Nation Archives  http://www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/ok/nations/itcherokee/itcherokee.html
Cherokee Nation Georgia Map  http://www.cviog.uga.edu/Projects/gainfo/histcountymaps/cherokeenation1830map.htm
Cherokee Nation Indian Territory  http://www.rootsweb.com/~itcherok/
Cherokee Nation Life  http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Chronicles/v004/v004p016.html
Cherokee National Historical Historical Society  http://www.powersource.com/heritage/default.html
Cherokee Nation of Mexico  http://www.cherokeenationmexico.com/
Cherokee Nation (Oklahoma)  http://www.cherokee.org/
Cherokee Nation Tribal Profile  http://tlj.unm.edu/articles/volume_3/carroll/index.php
Cherokee Nation, Oklahoma 1975 Constitution  http://www.smokymtnmall.com/mall/cindians.html
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia  http://www.cviog.uga.edu/Projects/gainfo/cherovga.htm
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia  http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/two/cherokee.htm
Cherokee North Carolina  http://www.cherokee-nc.com/museum_intro.php
Cherokee Observer  http://www.cherokeeobserver.org/
Cherokee People  http://www.shadowwolf.org/cherokee_people.html
Cherokee Religion  http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/nam/cherok.html
Cherokee Rolls  http://www.tngenweb.org/tnfirst/rolls.html
Cherokee Rolls Lookup  http://www.comanchelodge.com/cherokee-rolls.html
Cherokee Society  http://www.thewildwest.org/native_american/society/Cherokee.html
Cherokees of South Carolina  http://www.cherokeesofsouthcarolina.com/
Cherokee Storytelling  http://www.ibiblio.org/storytelling/cherokee.html
Cherokee Syllabary  http://www.omniglot.com/writing/cherokee.htm
Cherokee Treaty - 1806  http://www.chickasawhistory.com/t29.htm
Cherokee Treaty - 1866  http://www.african-nativeamerican.com/treatycher.htm
Cherokee Tribe of Kentucky  http://www.cherokeetribeofkentucky.org/
Cherokee Tribe of Northeast Alabama  http://members.aol.com/ctnealhome/
Cherokee Tribe Reinstates Blacks  http://news.newamericamedia.org/news/view_article.html?article_id=bd8b0521f873436b06547cd272ceefcf
Cherokee/Tsalagi Storyteller/Authors  http://www.hanksville.org/storytellers/tocT2.html
Chickamauga Cherokee Indian Creek Band  http://chickamaugacherokee.org/index.htm
Chieftains Museum  http://www.cviog.uga.edu/Projects/gainfo/chieftains.htm
Chieftains Trail  http://www.theblueridgehighlander.com/history/native_american_tales_legends/chieftains_trail/index.html
Chief Vann House Historic Site  http://gastateparks.org/info/chiefvann/
Confederate General Stand Watie  http://members.aol.com/ciiisiii/cherokeepage/cherokee2.htm
Eastern Band Cherokee  History  http://www.kstrom.net/isk/art/basket/cherhist.html
Eastern Band of Cherokee  http://www.cherokee-nc.com/
Eastern Band of Cherokee Nation  http://www.nc-cherokee.com/
Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama  http://www.echotacherokeetribe.homestead.com/
Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama Wolf Clan  http://www.echotacherokeewolfclan.com/
English Cherokee Dictionary  http://www.wehali.com/tsalagi/index.cfm
Fort Gibson  http://www.wordlink.net/Cherokee/FortGibson.html
Four Winds Tribe Louisiana Cherokee Confederacy  http://www.fourwindstribelcc.com/
Fredonian Rebellion  http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/FF/jcf1.html
Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokee  http://www.georgiatribeofeasterncherokee.com/
Guthrie Studios  http://www.guthriestudios.com/
"Hail Fredonia"  http://www.sonic.net/~buscador/Errerrs.htm
Indians of Summer, NC Cherokee  http://www.roadsideamerica.com/attract/NCCHEchiefs.html
Jefferson Address to Cherokee Chiefs  http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/jeffind4.htm
Junaluska  http://www.junaluska.com/
Indian Removal Act - 1830  http://civics-online.org/library/formatted/texts/indian_act.html
Indian Removal Act of 1830  http://www.studyworld.com/indian_removal_act_of_1830.htm
Keetoowah Cherokee History  http://www.cherokeeobserver.org/keetoowah/octissue97.html
Keetoowah Society  http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Chronicles/v004/v004p251.html
Last Resolution of the Original Cherokee Nation  http://cita.chattanooga.org/1838rsn.htm
Legend of the Cherokee Rose  http://powersource.com/cherokee/rose.html
Major Ridge, Cherokee Chief  http://ngeorgia.com/people/ridge.html
Mankiller, Wilma  http://dir.salon.com/people/bc/2001/11/20/mankiller/index.html
McClung Museum - Cherokee Indians  http://mcclungmuseum.utk.edu/specex/cherokee/cherokee.htm
New Echota Historic Site  http://gastateparks.org/info/echota/
Northeastern State University  http://www.wordlink.net/Cherokee/northeastern.html
Northern Cherokee Nation of Old Louisiana Territory  http://ncnolt1.homestead.com/
Occupation of the Cherokee Nation by the Union  http://www.rootsweb.com/~itcivwar/unionocc.htm
Rebuilding the Cherokee Nation  http://gos.sbc.edu/m/mankiller.html
Red Nation of the Cherokee  http://www.rednation.org/
Roger, Will:  Cherokee Tradition  http://www.willrogers.com/stories/stories/molded/Molded.html
Rogers, Will:  Indian Cowboy  http://www.willrogers.com/willrogers/cowboy/ic.html
Ross's Landing Historical Marker  http://www.cviog.uga.edu/Projects/gainfo/gahistmarkers/rosslanding.htm
Sequoya  http://www.indigenouspeople.net/sequoya.htm
Sequoya  http://www.manataka.org/page81.html
Sequoya Birthplace Museum  http://www.sequoyahmuseum.org/
Sequoya Genius  http://www.anpa.ualr.edu/digital_library/sequoyah/sequoyah.htm
Settlers and Intruders on Cherokee Lands 1801-1816  http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~janelle/Intruders.htm
Southern Cherokee Tribe an Associated Bands in Texas  http://hometown.aol.com/atsila/SoCherokeeHomePage.html
Tahlequah  http://www.wordlink.net/Cherokee/tahlequah.html
Tallige Cherokee Nation  http://www.tallige.com/
Trail of Tears  http://www.cviog.uga.edu/Projects/gainfo/trailtea.htm
Trail of Tears Timeline  http://www.crystalinks.com/cherokee2.html
Treaties with Georgia Cherokee  http://www.cviog.uga.edu/Projects/gainfo/chtreaty.htm
Tsalagi Basketry, Plants, History  http://kstrom.net/isk/art/basket/baskcher.html
Tsalagi Language Resources  http://public.csusm.edu/raven/cherokee.dir/cher1.html
United Cherokee Tribe of Virginia  http://www.ucitova.org/weblog/
United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians  http://unitedkeetoowahband.org/
Western Cherokee  http://www.westerncherokeenation.org/
Western Cherokee Nation of Arkansas and Missouri  http://www.westerncherokee.net/
Worchester v. Georgia  http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/two/worcestr.htm
Yamada Language Center  http://babel.uoregon.edu/yamada/guides/cherokee.html

Last updated 10/24/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press