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Cheyenne

 

 

Ethnie: CHEYENNE
Language: Cheyenne
Family: Plains Algonquian
Stock: Algonquian
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: Great Plains
Speakers 1,721   1990 Census
      The Cheyenne were sedentary hunter/farmers of southwestern Minnesota, ranging into South Dakota.  As a result of pressure created by the earlier Beaver Wars, they moved several times while remaining hunter/farmers.  By 1832, they had absorbed their close relatives, the Sutaio, and moved out onto the plains to become nomadic hunter/gatherers, following the great buffalo herds, upon which they relied upon for subsistence.
      The Cheyenne ultimately allied with the Sioux, and more closely with the Arapaho with whom they ultimately fissioned into northern and southern divisions.  The Southern Cheyenne under Black Kettle suffered two devastating massacres, at Sand Creek by Chivington and at the Washita River by Custer.  The Northern Cheyenne fought with Crazy Horse's Sioux to defeat Custer at he Little Big Horn.
Aboriginal Locations
Apparently about the upper drainage of the Mississippi River and/or the shores of Lake Superior
Present Locations
MY   Northern Cheyenne Reservation, Lame Deer
OK   Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes, Concho
Year History
1680 Some of tribe visited Fort Crevecoeur being constructed by LaSalle near present Peoria, Illinois
1750 Had acquired horses but remained hunter/farmers along the Cheyenne River in North Dakota
178X Some Cheyenne attacked by Chippewa while men off hunting, villages destroyed, joined other Cheyenne along Missouri
1804 Visited by Lewis and Clark, living in earth lodges along the Missouri River about the border of present North Dakota and South Dakota living as sedentary hunter/farmers and makers of pottery
1824 Beginning of mountain man fur trade era
1832 Deserted farming, Southern Cheyenne removed to near Bents Fort un the upper Arkansas River, Northern Cheyenne moved to range including the North Platte and Yellowstone Rivers
1833 More than 200 killed by Crow in revenge battle
1837 48 Cheyenne warriors killed by Kiowa
1838 Cheyenne and Arapaho attacked Kiowa and Comanche, losses on both sides
1840 Joined old enemies Kiowa against Whites, end of mountain man fur trade era
1841 Influx of Oregon Trail settlers
1849 Cholera epidemic
1851 First Treaty of Fort Laramie established specific tracts for Plains tribes, formally divided tribe into northern and southern divisions
1853 Southern Cheyenne conducted disastrous raid into Mexico
1854 Killed more than 100 Pawnee
1860 War with Whites
1864 Cheyenne-Arapaho War, Sand Creek Massacre of Southern Cheyenne and Arapaho in Colorado
1867 Medicine Lodge Treaty, Southern Arapaho place on reservation in Oklahoma with Southern Cheyenne; Northern Cheyenne assigned to Montana reservation
1868 Surprise attack by Custer of Southern Cheyenne on Washita River, 100 including Chief Black Kettle killed
1869 Tall Bull's Northern Cheyenne defeated by Gen. Carr's forces
1876 Northern Cheyenne joined Lakota in defeat of Gen Custer on the Little Big Horn
1879 Northern band under Dull Knife colonized with Southern Cheyenne:  made escape north, 75 of tribe, 50 Whites died; 32 killed in second escape from Ft. Robinson, Nebraska
1883 Dull Knife died
1901 Oklahoma land allotted in severalty 
Year U.S. Population MN MT ND OK SD Source
Arrival 3,500 2,100 1,400
1700 3,500 3,500 NAHDB calculation
1780 3,500 Mooney estimate
1800 3,300 1,700 1,600 NAHDB calculation
1900 3,300 1,600 1,700 NAHDB calculation 
1903 3,312 Census
1910 3,248 US Indian Office
1989 5,800 BIA estimate
1989 7,900 Turtle Tracks
1997 6,591 Tribe
2000 11,000
2000 11,000 7,000 4,000 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
None
Cheyenne Sites:
Army Scout, U. S. Cavalry  http://www.linecamp.com/museums/americanwest/define_the_west/army_scout/army_scout.html
Battle of Summit Springs  http://www.logancountychamber.com/tourismsummitsprings.html
Black Hills and Cheyenne Chiefs  http://home.epix.net/~landis/blackhills.html
Black Kettle  http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/a_c/blackkettle.htm
Bushyhead, Jerome, Cheyenne Artist  http://www.artnatam.com/bhead/
Campbell, Ben Nighthorse  http://www.powersource.com/campbell/default.html
Campbell, Ben Nighthorse  http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=C000077
Cheyenne  http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/WWcheyenne.htm
Cheyenne  http://www.nativeamericans.com/Cheyenne.htm
Cheyenne  http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/cheyenne.html
Cheyenne  http://www.meyna.com/cheyenne.html
Cheyenne and Arapaho Images  http://members.cox.net/teewood/SegerCol/segercolony.html
Cheyenne and Arapaho Nation Flag  http://hometown.aol.com/Donh523/navapage/cheyarap.htm
Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes of Oklahoma  http://cheyenne-arapaho.org/
Cheyenne - Arapaho Lands:  Oklahoma Territory  http://rebelcherokee.labdiva.com/itcheyenne_arapaho.html
Cheyenne Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t13
Cheyenne At the Smithsonian  http://www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/squint_eyes/squint_eyes.htm
Cheyenne Chief Tall Bull  http://www.historynet.com/culture/native_american_history/3032086.html
Cheyenne Chief Two Moons  http://www.geocities.com/cheyenne_language/twomoons.htm
Cheyenne Dog Soldiers  http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Chronicles/v001/v001p090.html
Cheyenne History  http://www.denverartmuseum.org/cheyennevisions2/CVII_cheyenneHistory.htm
Cheyenne History Bibliography  http://www.cheyenneancestors.com/ncbiblio.html
Cheyenne Indian  http://www.cheyenneindian.com/
Cheyenne Indian Fact Sheet  http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/cheyenne_kids.htm
Cheyenne Indian History  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/cheyenne/cheyennehist.htm
Cheyenne Indians  http://www.sonofthesouth.net/american-indians/cheyenne-indians.htm
Cheyenne Indians History and Ways of Life, Vol. 1  http://www.1st-hand-history.org/Cheyn1/album1.html
Cheyenne Indians History and Ways of Life, Vol. 2  http://www.1st-hand-history.org/Cheyn2/album1.html
Cheyenne Indians:  Lewis and Clark Journals  http://www.nps.gov/jeff/LewisClark2/TheJourney/NativeAmericans/Cheyenne.htm
Cheyenne Lands  http://rebelcherokee.labdiva.com/cheyenne.html
Cheyenne Language  http://www.native-languages.org/cheyenne.htm
Cheyenne Language  http://www.cheyenneindian.com/cheyenne_language.htm
Cheyenne Language  http://www.omniglot.com/writing/cheyenne.htm
Cheyenne Language  http://www.geocities.com/cheyenne_language/
Cheyenne Language  http://www.native-languages.org/cheyenne.htm
Cheyenne Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=CHY
Cheyenne Language Surviving  http://www.turtletrack.org/Issues01/Co11032001/CO_11032001_Cheyenne_Language.htm
Cheyenne Life Today  http://www.ou.edu/okage/504Lodge_Pole_RiverSite/Cheyenne_Life_Today.html
Cheyenne Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=CHY
Cheyenne Man's Shirt  http://www.dia.org/collections/aonwc/nativeamericanart/1988.27.html
Cheyenne Society  http://www.thewildwest.org/native_american/society/Cheyenne.html
Cheyenne Stories  http://www.geocities.com/cheyenne_language/stories.htm
Cheyenne Sweat Lodge  http://www.curtis-collection.com/cheyannesweatlodge.html
Cheyenne Traditional History  http://members.tripod.com/~mr_sedivy/colorado5.html
Cheyenne Tribe  http://www.omaha.lib.ne.us/transmiss/congress/cheyenne.html
Cheyenne War  http://www.onwar.com/aced/chrono/c1800s/yr75/fcheyenne1878.htm
Chief Dull Knife College  http://www.cdkc.edu/
Chief Wolf Robe  http://www.indigenouspeople.net/wolfrobe.htm
Col. John M. Chivington  http://www.lastoftheindependents.com/chivington.html
Dull Knife, Northern Cheyenne  http://webhome.idirect.com/~mikeha/namericans/dullknife.html
Early Life  http://media.wiley.com/product_data/excerpt/24/04714459/0471445924.pdf
Fremont's Travels in the Far West  http://www.jewish-history.com/WildWest/Carvalho/carval10.html
Ghost Dance  http://php.indiana.edu/~tkavanag/visual5.html
Just Speak Your Language  http://www.wholeearthmag.com/ArticleBin/326.html
Let's Listen to Cheyenne  http://www.fortunecity.com/victorian/song/1147/index.html
Little Wolf, Cheyenne  http://webhome.idirect.com/~mikeha/namericans/littlewolf.html
Northern Arapaho Tribe  http://www.northernarapaho.com/
Northern Arapaho Tribe  http://www.mnisose.org/profiles/narapho.htm
Northern Arapaho Tribe Community Profile  http://www.mnisose.org/profiles/narapho.htm
Northern Cheyenne Flag  http://users.aol.com/donh523/navapage/nchey.htm
Northern Cheyenne Territory  http://www.crystalinks.com/cheyenne.html
Northern Cheyenne Tribe  http://www.cheyennenation.com/
Northern Cheyenne Tribe Community Profile  http://www.mnisose.org/profiles/ncheyne.htm
Northern Cheyenne v. Southern Cheyenne Dialects  http://www.geocities.com/cheyenne_language/dialects.htm
Oregon Trail  http://linnhistory.peak.org/1853/1853immore.html
Red River War  http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/redriver/
Sand Creek Massacre  http://www.sandcreek.org/massacre.htm
Sand Creek Massacre Site  http://crm.cr.nps.gov/archive/23-09/23-09-11.pdf
Sand Creek Massacre Site Project  http://www.sandcreek.org/
Washita Battlefield National Historic Site  http://www.oklahoma.feb.gov/FEBKids/WashitaBattlefieldNationalHistoricSite.htm
Washita:  Genocide of the Great Plains  http://www.dickshovel.com/was.html

Last updated 10/07/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press