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Chickasaw

 

 

Ethnie: CHICKASAW
Dialect: Chickasaw
Language: Choctaw
Family: Western Muskhogean
Stock: Muskhogean
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
Speakers 1,000 or fewer (1987 Munro and Willmond)
      The Chickasaw were a large sedentary hunter/farmer nation of northern Mississippi and into neighboring states.  They were constantly at war with their closest relatives, the Choctaw, as well as other neighbors.  They were considered to be extremely capable warriors.
      A common practice of the Chickasaw was to adopt alien peoples.  They were one of the five major nations removed to the Indian Territory from the southeast in the 1830's.
Aboriginal Locations (# of Villages)
MS  (26)
TN  (1)
Present Locations
OK  Chickasaw Tribe, Ardmore
Year History
1540 Met by De Soto who wintered with the tribe against wishes of Chickasaw who eventually rebelled against unacceptable Spanish demands and severely defeated De Soto's army
1560 Joined by Napochi sometime after this year
1673 Met a small party lead by Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet which was exploring the Mississippi near present Memphis
1682 Robert LaSalle and Henri Tonti party stopped at Chickasaw Bluffs because LaSalle was ill, had extended contact with the tribe; party stayed across river with Chickasaw enemies the Quapaw on return trip
1685 Henry Woodward established permanent trading post and sent two men overland to trade with Chickasaw
1690 Choctaw-Chickasaw war, 1,800 Choctaw, 800 Chickasaw killed
1698 British trader visits to Chickasaw villages routine; Chickasaw made slaving pact with the British supplying women and children of neighboring tribes in trade for arms
1702 Tonti endeavored to establish friendly relations with Chickasaw for the French; leaders of the tribe were escorted through Choctaw territories by Tonti to visit Mobile
1703 Chickasaw/Creek/Carolina alliance destroyed Apalachee
1704 Choctaw-Chickasaw war revived
1705 Chickasaw and Creek defeated Choctaw
1706 Tribe split into pro-French and pro-British dissolving peace with French
1711 Choctaw-Chickasaw war again revived with Choctaw being armed by French
1715 Assisted Cherokee in driving Shawnee from Cumberland settlements
1717 Chickasaw attacks on Caddo resulted in French arming Caddos and the creation of the Kadohadacho Confederacy; deer skins became popular trade commodity ultimately driving deer to near extinction in southeast
1720 Choctaw began protracted war against Chickasaw
1723 Chickasaw occupied Chickasaw Bluffs overlooking Mississippi River blocking French traffic on river; established a settlement near August, Georgia for more than 50 years, aided Georgians in war against Florida Spanish
1725 Influx of 1,000 French colonists into Chickasaw territories along with Black slaves and a myriad of diseases
1730 New Choctaw-Chickasaw war
1733 Peace with northern Choctaw
1736 Chickasaw closure of the Mississippi prompted an all out attack of the nation by the French with French and Illinois attacking from the north and French and Choctaw attacking from the south resulting in the greatest defeat ever suffered by the French at the hands of Native Americans
1739 Second attack by French on Chickasaw resulted once again in failure a the disgrace of the French officers; Chakchiuma joined the Chickasaw; victories had nonetheless cost the Chickasaw three quarters of their population
1745 Joined Cherokee in expelling a Shawnee band from Cumberland
1750 Cherokee-Chickasaw war party seriously defeated Choctaw
1752 Defeated French commander Benoist
1753 Defeated French commander Reggio in alliance with Cherokee
1755 Beginning of 14 years of skirmished between Cherokee and Chickasaw
1765 British imposed a peace between Chickasaw and Choctaw
1769 Chickasaw defeated Cherokee at Chickasaw Oldfields
1777 Sided with the British in the Revolutionary War and closed the Mississippi to traffic
1781 Kickapoo raided the Chickasaw on behalf of the Spanish; Fort Jefferson built by George Rogers Clark in Kentucky abandoned due to attacks by Chickasaw
1783 Chickasaw made peace with the Americans at French Lick, Tennessee
1784 Measles epidemic
1786 Treaty at Hopewell establishing boundaries between Choctaws Piomingo (Mountain Leader) and Mingatuska (Hair Lip King) and United States; William Davenport brought the first American trading party to the Chickasaw which was ambushed by the Creek
1791 Treaty ceding land
1792 Severe drought cause crop failures
1794 Treaty ceding land
1795 Creek defeated in attack on Piomingo's Chickasaw
1805 Treaty ceding land
1813 Fought along side Andrew Jackson, Cherokee, and Choctaw against Creek in Creek War
1816 Treaty ceding land
1818 Treaty ceding land
1819 Presbyterian, Methodist, and Baptist missions established among tribe
1830 Andrew Jackson signed Removal Act
1832 Treaty of Pontotoc ceded land east of Mississippi
1837 Beginning of removal to Indian Territory; cholera epidemic
1856 Tribe approved written constitution
1861 Fought for the Confederacy in the Civil War
1888 Texas cattlemen moved 150,000 cattle onto Chickasaw lands and refused to pay for grazing
1906 Chickasaw nation dissolved
1963 Tribe recognized under Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act
Year Total Population MS OK TN Source
1600 8,000 Mooney estimate
1700 6,000 5,000 1,000 NAHDB calculation
1702 6,000 Iberville estimate; Queen Ann's War
1800 3,600 3,600 NAHDB calculation
1817 3,600 Morse estimate
1833 4,700 Porter estimate
1865 4,500 US Indian Office
1900 4,300 4,300 NAHDB calculation 
1910 4,204 Census
1930 4,725 US Indian Office
1973 6,050 BIA
1989 17,201 BIA estimate
2000 Alabama Indian Affairs Commission
2000 32,000 32,000 NAHDB calculation 
2005 35,000 Lee Sultzman
Other speakers of the same language:
Acolapissa, Bayougoula, Chakchiuma, Choctaw, Houma, Mobile, Napochi, Okelusa, Pascagoula, Pensacola, Tohome
Chickasaw Sites:
Black Indian History  http://anpa.ualr.edu/other_resources/black_indian_history/black_indian_freedman_chickasaw.htm
Chickasaw  http://mshistory.k12.ms.us/features/feature40/chickasaw.html
Chickasaw  http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/chickasaw.htm
Chickasaw  http://www.nativeamericans.com/Chickasaw.htm
Chickasaw Area Iindian Nation  http://www.livgenmi.com/1895/INNA/County/chickasaw.htm
Chickasaw Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t14
Chickasaw Biz  http://www.chickasaw.biz/
Chickasaw Chiefs and Prominent Men  http://www.natchezbelle.org/ahgp-ms/chiefs/chiefs3.htm
Chickasaw Historical Research Page  http://www.chickasawhistory.com/
Chickasaw History  http://www.tolatsga.org/chick.html
Chickasaw Indian Language  http://www.native-languages.org/chickasaw.htm
Chickasaw Indian Nation  http://www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/ok/nations/chickasaw/chickasaw.html
Chickasaw Indian Online Records  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/chickasaw/
Chickasaw Indian Tribe  http://www.nanations.com/chickasaw/
Chickasaw Indian Tribe's History  http://wywy.essortment.com/chickasawindian_rjoj.htm
Chickasaw Language  http://www.ethnologue.org/14/show_language.asp?code=CIC
Chickasaw Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.org/14/show_lang_family.asp?code=CIC
Chickasaw Nation  http://wais.stanford.edu/Articles/chickasawnation.htm
Chickasaw Nation  http://www.redearth.webtol.com/seal.html
Chickasaw Nation  http://www.chickasaw.net/
Chickasaw Nation 1837-1907 Indian Territory  http://www.rootsweb.com/~itchicka/
Chickasaw Nation Capitol Timeline  http://www.civilwaralbum.com/indian/tish_timeline.htm
Chickasaw Nation Constitution http://thorpe.ou.edu/constitution/CHICKASA.html
Chickasaw People  http://www.utm.edu/departments/acadpro/library/departments/special_collections/wc_hist/chksaw.htm
Chickasaw Times  http://www.chickasawtimes.net/
Chickasaw Treaty:  1805  http://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html-Treaties/TreatyWithTheChickasaw1805.html
Chickasaw Treaty:  1830  http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/ntreaty/nt008.htm
Chickasaw Treaty - 1852  http://www.chickasawhistory.com/t14.htm
Chickasaw Tribe  http://www.usgennet.org/usa/ms/county/tishomingo/chswtrb.html
Dawes Rolls  http://dawesrolls.com/
Descendants of the Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes  http://www.freedmen5tribes.com/Myths.htm
Eloquent Protest of the Chickasaw Freedmen  http://www.african-nativeamerican.com/chickmem.htm
Southeastern Woodlands Culture and Ethnobotany  http://www.fourdir.com/southeastern_woodlands_culture.htm
Tishomingo  http://www.civilwaralbum.com/indian/tish1.htm
Trail of Tears ...  http://www.nationaltota.org/
Treaty of 1866:  Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations  http://www.african-nativeamerican.com/treaty66.htm
Treaty with the Chickasaw - 1852  http://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html-Treaties/TreatyWithTheChickasaw1852.html
Whites in Indian Territory:  Chickasaw and Choctaw Nations  http://members.aol.com/TMCorner/wht_c_c.htm

Last updated 10/07/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press