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Chinookan Tribes

 

 

Ethnie: CHINOOKAN TRIBES
Language: Lower Chinookan
Family: Chinookan
Stock: Chinookan
Phylum: Penutian
Macro-Culture: Northwestern
Speakers 12 1996 
     The Chinookan Tribes were sedentary, relied heavily on fishing, and were avid traders including the trading of slaves.  They were located on the north side of the Columbia River north to Grays Bay and north along the seacoast to Shoalwater Bay.  The Clatsop were on the south side of the Columbia River from Tongue Point to the mouth and south along the coast to Tillamook Point.  Theirs was the lingua franca (trade language) of the region.  They suffered enormously from the White influx even though they had good relations with the early White traders.
Aboriginal Locations
OR  Clatsop 6 villages
WA Chinook 27 Villages
Oregon Present Locations
WA Chehalis Reservation, Oakville
OR  Grande Ronde Reservation, Grande Ronde
WA  Shoalwater Reservation, Tokeland
Year History
1792 Visited by Robert Gray and John Boit, and later by Capt. George Vancouverr
1805 Visited by Lewis and Clark who wintered at Fort Clatsop near present Astoria
1811 Astoria founded; David Thompson explored the length of the Columbia River
1824 Smallpox epidemic
1829 Smallpox epidemic (combined with earlier epidemic reduced population 80%)
1830 Malaria epidemic
1841 Influx of Oregon Trail settlers, conflicts began
1847 Measles epidemic
1855 Washington Chinook joined Chehalis
1856 Oregon Grande Ronde Reservation established
1875 Clatsop moved to Grande Ronde Reservation
1956 Grande Ronde Reservation terminated
1974 Confederated Tribes of Grande Ronde established 
2001 BIA recognized Chinook Nation of Washington
Year U.S. Population OR WA Source
1700 1,100 200 900 NAHDB calculation
1780 1,100 Mooney estimate
Chinook  800
Clatsop   300
1800 1,100 NAHDB calculation
1806 700 100 900 Lewis and Clark
400 Chinook (on Columbia only)
300 Clatsop
1851 300 Swanton (Soon absorbed into other tribes)
1900 0 0 0 NAHDB calculation
2000 0 0 0 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
None
Chinookan Tribes Sites:
Buried Treasure:  Archeologists ... http://www.tdn.com/articles/2004/12/11/area_news/news03.txt
Capitalizing the Chinook  http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/InNews/fishnews0632004.htm
Chinook  http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/chinook.html
Chinook Artifacts Found  http://data2.itc.nps.gov/digest/headline.cfm?type=Announcements&id=3117&urlarea=npsnews
Chinook Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t143
Chinook Book  http://chinookjargon.home.att.net/phillips.htm
Chinook Creation Myth  http://www.indianlegend.com/chinook/chinook_001.htm
Chinook Dictionary, Catechism, Prayers, and Hymns  http://www.canadiana.org/ECO/mtq?doc=04222
Chinook Indian  http://www.chinookindian.com/
Chinook Indian Hat  http://lewisandclarktrail.com/indianhat.htm
Chinook Indian Jargon  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/chinook/chinookindianhist.htm
Chinook Indians  http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/native/chi.html
Chinook Indians  http://www.nationalgeographic.com/lewisandclark/record_tribes_083_14_3.html
Chinook Indian Tribe  http://www.up.edu/portlandmag/2005_winter/chinook/chinook_01.html
Chinook Jargon  http://www.ydli.org/bcother/chinook.htm
Chinook Jargon  http://www.1st-hand-history.org/Hibben/album1.html
Chinook Jargon  http://www.fortlangley.ca/Chinook%20Jargon/time.html
Chinook Jargon and How to Use It  http://chinookjargon.home.att.net/shaw.htm
Chinook Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chh
Chinook Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=CHH
Chinook Literature  http://www.indians.org/welker/chinook.htm
Chinook Literature  http://www.indigenouspeople.net/chinook.htm
Chinook Nation  http://chinooknation.org/
Chinook Nation  http://www.up.edu/portlandmag/2005_winter/chinook/chinook_01.html
Chinook Native Americans  http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/schools/travilahes/stwork03/writing/Chinook.pdf
Chinook People  http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/chinook.htm
Chinook Rudiments  http://chinookjargon.home.att.net/ljcr24.htm
Chinook Texts  http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/nw/chinook/
Chinook Tribe  http://www.beavton.k12.or.us/jacob_wismer/leahy/2003/native_american_posters/chinook.htm
Chinook Tribes  http://logos.uoregon.edu/explore/oregon/chtribes.html
Chinook Wawa Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=CRW
Clackamas People  http://www.usgennet.org/alhnorus/ahorclak/clackamas.html
Dictionary of Chinook Jargon  http://chinookjargon.home.att.net/gibbs.htm
Dictionary of Chinook Jargon  http://www.canadiana.org/ECO/mtq?doc=14272
Legend of the Chinook Indians  http://www.hprcc.unl.edu/nebraska/stuproj/ametf99/wenzl/chinook.html
Legends of Vancouver  http://www.robirda.com/chinooktalk.html
Lewis and Clark Bicentennial  http://www.astoria-usa.com/lewis-clark.html
Lewis and Clark Bicentennial Mural  http://www.washington.edu/burkemuseum/lewisclark/painting.html
Lewis and Clark:  Chinook on the Columbia  http://www.washingtonhistory.org/wshm/lewisandclark/chinook-drawings.htm
Lower Chinook and Clatsop  http://www.trailtribes.org/fortclatsop/since-time-immemorial.htm
Lower Chinookan Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=CHH
Lower Columbia River Indains  http://schools.gorge.net/hrcsd/westside/4mchinookmaddie.htm
Northwest:  Chinookan Culture and Ethnobotany  http://www.fourdir.com/northwest_chinookan_culture.htm
Once Dying Chinook Language ...  http://www.turtletrack.org/Issues04/Co06192004/CO_06192004_Chinook_Language.htm
Potlatch of the Northwest Coast  http://www.santarosa.edu/museum/potlatch.htm
She Who Watches  http://www.ochcom.org/chinook
Tenas Wawa - Chinook Jargon  http://www.wrvmuseum.org/journal/journal_0702.htm
US Recognizes Chinook Tribe  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/1099968.stm

Last updated 10/12/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press