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Chippewa

 

 

Ethnie: CHIPPEWA (OJIBWA, OJIBWE, ANISHINABE, ANISHINAABEG)
Languages (speakers): Algonquian (2,275), Chippewa (?), Central Ojibwan (?), Eastern Ojibwan (?), Northwestern Ojibwan (?), Ottowa (22,885), Severn Ojibwa, Western Ojibwan (?)
Language Group: Ojibwan
Family: Central Algonquian
Stock: Algonquian
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: Great Plains
      The Chippewa were a large sedentary hunter/farmer language group and culture.  They relied heavily on fishing and wild rice for subsistence.  Tradition states that they migrated from the Atlantic Coast long before the arrival of the Europeans.  Aboriginally, they occupied most of the northern shores of the Great Lakes and ranges westward into Minnesota, Manitoba, and the Dakotas.
      They were pushed westward as a result of wars with the Iroquois and Europeans.  A particular period of conflict was during the Beaver Wars, 1630-1701.  In turn, the Chippewa pushed a number of tribes out of their aboriginal territories.  Those who removed to the plains were the Dakota, Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho.  Other who removed southward included the Fox, Kickapoo, Illinois, and Miami.
      The various Chippewa tribes were slowly placed on reservations as they were force to cede their territories to both Canada and the United States.  The are nonetheless, one on the largest Indian cultures in North America.
Aboriginal Locations (# of Villages)
MB (2), MI (27), MN (44), ON (10), WI (2), ND (12)
Present Locations
CAN (Reserves)  MB (31), ON (89), RQ (1), SK (18)
U.S.    MI   Bay Mills Reservation, Brinley
                   Burnt Lake Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians, Inc.  Brutus
                   Isabella Reservation, Mount Pleasant
                   Keweenaw Bay Reservation, Baraga
          MN  Fon du Lac Reservation, Cloquet
                  Grand Portage Reservation, Grand Portage
                  Leech Lake Reservation, Cass Lake
                  Mille Lacs Reservation, Onamia
                  Nett Lake Reservation, Nett Lake
                  Red Lake Reservation, Redlake
                  White Earth Reservation, White Earth
          MT  Rocky Boy's Reservation, Box Elder
                  Turtle Mountain Reservation, Belcourt
Year History
1634 Possibly met by Jean Nicolet, their first encounter with Europeans
1640 The beginning of the Beaver Wars which drove the Chippewa westward to expel numerous tribes from their territories
1640 First mentioned in the Jesuit Relations
1641 Jesuit Frs. Charles Raymbault and Isaac Jones visited Chippewa at Sault Ste. Marie who were fighting a powerful enemy to the west called the Nadouessioux (Rattlesnakes), leter shortened by the French to Sioux
1662 Expelled Iroquois from Lake Superior
1669 Sturgeon War against Menominee
1680 Iroquois fail to take Ft. St. Louis on the upper Illinois River
1687 Newly armed Ojibwe began offensive which ultimately confined the Iroquois to their original territories
1690 Ojibwe drove the Fox from the St. Croix Valley
1701 French brokered peace treaty between the Algonquian tribes and the Iroquois ended Beaver Wars
1737 Dakota uprising against the French began 130 years of war between the Dakota and Ojibwe
1745 Ojibwe force Dakota from Mille Lacs region
1750 Chippewa bands migrated to Red Lake
1752 Ojibwe began war with allies against the Illinois to avenge the assassination of Pontiac, Illinois tribe nearly obliterated
1758 St. Mary's Mission established at Red Lake
1763 Joined the Pontiac Conspiracy to rid region of British and return the French
1765 Drove Lakota out of Minnesota and onto plains, but lakota soon acquires horses and became more formidable enemies
1767 British began using the French to trade with the Ojibwe
1780 Not a single Dakota village north of the Minnesota River, attacked Cheyenne while men off hunting driving tribe out onto the plains
1804 Lewis and Clark visited Red Lake
1812 War left Americans in total control, tribal lands began to dwindle
1819 Fort Snelling (at present St. Paul) established to quell war between Dakota and Ojibwe
1839 100 Ojibwe and 23 Dakota killed in battle on the grounds of Fort Snelling, some of tribe moved to Kansas
1847 President Zachary Taylor proposed the removal of all Ojibwe to Kansas, but his death postponed removal
1853 Minnesota legislature voted to oppose removal of Ojibwe tribes
1854 L'Anse Reservation established, La Pointe Treaty ceded lands but created Fond du Lac Reservation
1855 Mille Lacs Reservation established  
1860 Bay Mills Indian Community established by treaty
1864 Isabella Indian Reservation established by treaty
1865 Minnesota reservations established by treaty, American Fur Company established a post at Red Lake
1866 Kansas bands moved to Oklahoma, joined Cherokee
1875 Conclusion of Treaty No. 1 in which Ojibwe ceded Canadian lands
1884 U. S. took Turtle Mountain Reservation from Ojibwe and Cree, tribes remain without reservations today
1913 Hannahville Indian Community Established
1967 American Indian Movement (AIM) established by Chippewa activists, incorporated 1970
1972 Ottawa and Chippewa Nation of Indians received net award form earlier treaties on $10 million, Sault Ste. Marie Tribe federally recognized
1984 Traverse Band of Chippewa and Ottawa Reservation established
1988 Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Reservation established
1994 Pokagon Band (Anishinabeg) and Little Travers Band of Odawa Indians established
2005 10 killed at the Red Lake High School as a result of an assault buy a single ex-student
Year Total Population ND MB MI MN MT ON RQ SK Source
Arrival 36,500 3,000 31,500 2,000
1650 35,000
1700 36,500 3,000 31,500 2,000 NAHDB calculation
1764 25,000 Swanton
1783 15,000 Swanton
1794 15,000 Swanton
1800 21,300 6,000 12,000 2,000 1,300 NAHDB calculation
1843 30,000 Swanton
1851 28,000 Swanton
1900 34,500 3,000 3,000 4,000 12,000 1,000 10,000 500 1,000 NAHDB calculation 
1910 46,000 Census
1923 22,599 US Indian Office
1973 21,215 BIA
1989 49,235 BIA estimate
2000 190,000 34,000  12,000 30,000  60,000  6,000 41,000 1,000 6,000 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
None
Chippewa Sites:
Anishinabe  http://www.first-ojibwe.net/
Bad River Lodge and Casino  http://www.badriver.com/about.html
Bay Mills Indian Community  http://www.baymills.org/
Bay Mills Resort and Casino  http://www.4baymills.com/
Bois Fort / Nett Lake Band of Chippewa Indians  http://www.kstrom.net/isk/maps/mn/nettlake.htm
Chippewa  http://www.nativeamericans.com/Chippewa.htm
Chippewa Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t15
Chippewa Cree Tribe of the Rocky Boy's Reservation  http://www.rockyboy.org/
Chippewa Indian Fried Bread Recipe  http://www.recipeland.com/recipe/39043/
Chippewa Indian History  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/chippewa/chippewahist.htm
Chippewa Indians  http://www.americanindians.com/Chippewa.htm
Chippewa Indians  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03690a.htm
Chippewa Indians  http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=579
Chippewa Indian Tribe  http://www.nanations.com/chippewas/index.htm
Chippewa Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ciw
Chippewa Languages  http://www.native-languages.org/chippewa.htm
Chippewa Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=ciw
Chippewa/Ojibwa/Anishinabe Literature  http://www.indians.org/welker/chippewa.htm
Chippewa (Ojibway) Indian  http://www.wlra.us/hb/hbchippewaindian.htm
Chippewa Tribe  http://www.omaha.lib.ne.us/transmiss/congress/chippewa.html
Dream Catchers  http://www.nativetech.org/dreamcat/dreamcat.html
Father of Indian Corn  http://www.indians.org/welker/fathcorn.htm
Fon Du Lac Reservation  http://www.fdlrez.com/tribalhistory.htm
Grand Portage Band of Chippewa Indians   http://www.kstrom.net/isk/maps/mn/grandport.htm
Isabella Reservation  http://clarke.cmich.edu/reservation/4-aftermath.htm
Keweenaw Bay Chippewa Indian Community  http://www.itcmi.org/thehistorytribal4.html
La Courte Orielles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa  http://www.glitc.org/pages/lcoblsc.html
Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians  http://www.littleshelltribe.us/
Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe  http://www.millelacsojibwe.org/
Minnesota Chippewa Indian Tribe  http://www.mnchippewatribe.org/
Mole Lake Casino  http://www.molelake.com/
Museum of Ojibwa Culture  http://www.stignace.com/attractions/ojibwa/
Native Peoples of Minnesota  http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/history/mncultures/anishinabe.html
Ojibwa Indian Images  http://www.uwec.edu/AIS/laccourte/
Ojibwa Indian School  http://www.ojibwa.k12.nd.us/
Ojibwa, Ottawa, and Algonquian - 1500's  http://collections.ic.gc.ca/nativepeoples/algo.html
Ojibwa Society  http://lucy.ukc.ac.uk/EthnoAtlas/Hmar/Cult_dir/Culture.7862
Ojibwa's Little Shell Tribe  http://www.geocities.com/the_wanderling/little_shell.html
Ojibway Clan System  http://www.nald.ca/CLR/chikiken/page23.htm
Ojibway Culture and History  http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/5579/ojibwa.html
Ojibway Music from Minnesota  http://www.pbs.org/riverofsong/music/e1-ojibway.html
Ojibway Role Modles  http://www.turtle-island.com/rolemodels.html
Ojibwe History  http://www.tolatsga.org/ojib.html
Ojibwe Language  http://www.native-languages.org/ojibwe.htm
Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians  http://www.kstrom.net/isk/maps/mn/redlake.htm
Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians  http://www.redlakenation.org/
Red Lake Indian Reservation  http://wcco.com/localnews/local_story_080213605.html
Red Lake Shooting  http://wcco.com/topstories/local_story_080164955.html
Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation  http://montanakids.com/db_engine/presentations/presentation.asp?pid=176&sub=Tribal+Histories
Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe  http://www.sagchip.org/
Saginaw Chippewa Tribe of Michigan  http://www.itcmi.org/thehistorytribal6.html
Sault Tribe of Chippewa Indians  http://www.sootribe.org/
Sault Tribe of Chippewa Indians  http://www.saulttribe.com/
Sleeping Giant, The  http://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html-Legends/TheSleepingGiant-Ojibwa.html
Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians  http://www.tmbci.net/
Turtle Mountain Chippewa Heritage Center  http://chippewa.utma.com/index2.html
Waswagoning  http://www.waswagoning.com/
Whethung Ojibwa Crafts and Art Gallery  http://www.whetung.com/
White Earth Band of Ojibwe Indians  http://www.kstrom.net/isk/maps/mn/whitearth.htm
White Earth Reservation  http://www.whiteearth.com/
Windigo First Nations Council  http://www.windigo.on.ca/

Last updated 10/17/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press