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Chitimacha

 

 

Ethnie: CHITIMACHA
Language: Chitimacha
Family: Chitimacha
Stock: Tunica
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
Speakers Language extinct
      The Chitimacha were a sedentary hunter/farmer nation.  They were located on Grand River, Grand Lake, and the lower course of Bayou La Teche in Louisiana.  They suffered form wars with Whites and other tribes and barely escaped extinction.
Aboriginal Locations (# of Villages)
LA      Bayou Lafourche, Grand Lake (16)
Present Locations
LA    Chitimacha Reservation, Charenton
         Tribal Communities of Biloxi-Chitimacha Confederation of Muskhogees
Year History
1699 One of four tribes to make an alliance with Iberville
1702 St. Denis brought away 20 women and children in slaving raid against tribe, Bienville ordered slaved returned to tribe, order probably not executed
1706  Taensa invited tribe to come and eat corn of the Bayougoula, invitees attacked and enslaved
1707 Chitimacha killed missionary St. Cosme and three other Frenchmen in revenge raid; as a result, Bienville induced all of the southern Mississippi to declare was on the tribe; soon thereafter, a joint force of French and Indians destroyed a Chitimacha village, Chitimacha slaving continued though Chitimacha retaliations induced Bienville to sue for peace
1719 Tribe moved to Mississippi about Bayou Laforche
1764 Possibly joined by Taensa and Washa
1784 Hutchins described five Chitimaha villages in the vicinity of Bayou Lafourche and Bayou Teche
1882 Gatschet collected considerable vocabulary and cultural information
1971 Chitimacha tribe became federally recognized  
Year Total LA Population Source
1650 3,000 Mooney estimate
1699 3,000 Beaurain/Swanton estimate
1700 3,000 NAHDB calculation
1758 400 LaHarpe estimate (extrapolation)
1784 200 Hutchins estimate (extrapolation)
1800 200 NAHDB calculation
1900 100 NAHDB calculation
1910 69 Census
1930 51 Census
1973 182 BIA
1981 278 BIA
1989 246 BIA
2000 700 NAHDB calculation 
2004 725 University of Louisiana
Other speakers of the same language:
Chawasha, Washa
Chitimacha Sites:
Biloxi-Chitimacha-Choctaw of Louisiana  http://www.biloxi-chitimacha.com/
Chitimacha Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t16
Chitimacha History  http://www.dickshovel.com/chi.html
Chitimacha Indian History  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/chitimacha/chitimachahist.htm
Chitimacha Indian Reservation and Museum  http://www.epodunk.com/cgi-bin/geninfo.php?locIndex=55048
Chitimacha Language  http://www.sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de/linguist/issues/15/15-2675.html
Chitimacha Language  http://www.native-languages.org/chitimacha.htm
Chitimacha Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=CHM
Chitimacha Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_lang_family.asp?code=CHM
Chitimacha Students at Carlisle Indian School  http://home.epix.net/~landis/chitimacha.html
Chitimacha Tribe Consitution and By-Laws  http://doc.narf.org/nill/Constitutions/chiticonst/chiticonsttoc.htm
Chitimacha Tribe of Louisiana  http://www.dol-louisiana.org/guessthe.html
Chitimacha Tribe of Louisiana  http://www.chitimacha.com/
Chitimacha Tribe Revives Long Dormant Language  http://www.indianz.com/News/2004/006011.asp
Chitamacha, Washa, Chawasha & Yagenechito  http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/chitamacha.htm
Cypress Bayou Casino  http://www.cypressbayou.com/
Indian Nations of Louisiana  http://www.eatel.net/~wahya/tribes.html
Remnants of an Old Indian Tribe Documented  http://www.turtletrack.org/Issues01/Co03102001/CO_03102001_Remnants.htm
Tribe Works to Keep Ancient Tradition Alive  http://www.turtletrack.org/Issues02/Co03092002/CO_03092002_Chitimacha_Baskets.htm

Last updated 10/17/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press