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Choctaw

 

 

Ethnie: CHOCTAW
Language: Choctaw
Family: Western Muskhogean
Stock: Muskhogean
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
Speakers 24,640   1998
      The Choctaw were a large sedentary hunter/farmer nation.  They arrived in their southern territories sometime after the Cherokee, after 1000 B.C.  They occupied southeastern Mississippi and controlled some adjoining portions of Alabama and Louisiana.  They absorbed considerable numbers of Siouan peoples.  This may have precipitated the Chickasaw fission early in the past millennium.  
      The Choctaw were constantly at war with their neighbor nations.  They allied with the French and Americans against the British.  They were one of the five large "civilized" nations forced to remove to the Indian Territory (later Oklahoma) in the 1830's, though some remained in Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana.
Aboriginal Locations (# of Villages)
AL    (3)
LA    (2)
MS    Southern or Sixtown (17), Western (50), Northeastern (25)
Present Locations
AL    MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians, Mt. Vernon
L:A   Clifton-Choctaw Indians, Gardner
         Choctaw-Apache Community of Ebarb, Inc., Zwolle
         Jena Band of Choctaws, Jena
MS   Choctaw Reservation, Pearl River
OK   Choctaw Tribe, Durant
Year History
1540 Spanish conquistador Hernando DeSoto encounters Choctaw. Up to 1500 Choctaw killed by Spanish at Battle of Mabilu.
1690 Choctaw-Chickasaw war
1699 After Mississippi River explorations by de La Salle, Marquette and Jolliet, French establish Fort Maurepas on Gulf Coast.
1704 Choctaw-Chickasaw war revivied
1705 Chickasaw with Muskhogee defeated Choctaw
1711 Choctaw-Chickasaw war again revived
1717 Choctaw prevented French mutiny by massacring Ft. Tolouse garrison
1720 Choctaw ally with different European powers, preferring French over British, who support rival Chickasaw.
1723 Choctaw took 400 scalps, 100  slaves from Chickasaw
1724 Bienville arranged Choctaw-Chickasaw peace
1730 Choctaw joined French in war against Natchez, who are virtually wiped out.
1748 Tribal civil war between pro-French and pro-British factions
1755 French and Indian War (Seven Years War in Europe); Choctaw allegiances vary.
1763 Treaty of Paris: France cedes Canada to Britain and all claims to lands east of the Mississippi, except around New Orleans. Choctaw enter into treaty defining their borders.
1765 War with Creek Indians.
1776 Aided Americans in Revolutionary War
1786 Treaty of Hopewell between U.S. and Choctaw established borders.
1788 US recognizes Choctaw Nation by treaty
1801 Treaty of Fort Adams, whereby 2,264,920 acres along Mississippi River are sold to U.S. for $2000.
1802 Treaty of Fort Confederation, whereby approximately 50,000 acres are ceded to U.S. for $1.
1803 Treaty of Hoe Buckintoopa, whereby 853,760 acres of land are ceded in settlement of trade debt of $40,000, Louisiana Purchase, Louisiana Territorial Act authorizes President to negotiate with tribes to move west of Mississippi River.
1805 Treaty of Mount Dexter, whereby 4,142,720 acres are ceded in settlement of trade debt of nearly $48,000, plus payment of $3000 annuity, plus $500 payment for chiefs and salaries of $150 per year.
1809 Kept many southeast tribe out of Tecumseh's Rebellion
1812 Choctaw supported Americans against British in War of 1812.
1813 Helped US in Civil War
1816 Treaty of Fort St. Stephens, whereby approximately 3,000,000 acres are sold for $10,000 plus annual payments of $6000 for 20 years.
1817 565 Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Whites attacked Osage killing 83
1820 Treaty of Doak's Stand, whereby 5,269,788 acres are exchanged for approximately 13,000,000 acres west of Mississippi.
1824 Fort Towsend established on Red River to protect settlers from Osage, Choctaw, and Cherokee
1825 Treaty of Washington City establishes borders for lands received in Treaty of Doak's Stand. In exchange for 2,000,000 fewer acres then originally agreed, U.S. to move out any white settlers living in remaining “Indian Territory” plus provide a perpetual annuity of $6000, payment of trading debts, and pensions for Choctaw veterans who fought in War of 1812.
1829 Mississippi legislature abolishes tribal government and extends citizenship to all Choctaw, Fort Towsend abandoned
1830 Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, whereby remaining 10,000,000+ acres of Choctaw land in Mississippi and Alabama are ceded, and tribes agree to move to Indian Territory in exchange for protection, passage, and an annuity of $20,000 for twenty years, plus funds for schools, churches, and a council house.
1834 13,000 of tribe removed to Indian Territory and formed Choctaw Republic, First Tribal Council Meeting in Indian Territory at Jack's Fort; constitution adopted.
1859 Choctaw awarded $2,981,247.30 by U.S. Senate in settlement of outstanding debt from sale of Mississippi lands.
1865 Chief Peter Pitchlynn surrenders Choctaw military forces, which had fought for the Confederacy, to the U.S
1893 Authorization of President to negotiate termination of land titles held by Five Civilized Tribes; Dawes Commission established for allotment program.
1905 Five Civilized Tribes attempt to establish State of Sequoyah.
1906 Choctaw tribal government dissolved.
1907 Dawes Commission closes enrollment.
1918 Choctaw Indian Agency established in Philadelphia, Mississippi, influenza epidemic killed 25% of Mississippi Choctaw
1945 Mississippi Choctaw federally recognized
1953 Termination Act provides for independent action by tribes in matters formerly the responsibility of the U.S. including health care and education.
1995 Jena Band of Choctaw federally recognized
Year Total Population AL AR LA MS OK Source
Arrival 19,000 600 400 18,000
1700 19,000 600 400 18,000 NAHDB calculation
1761 19,000 Swanton
1800 19,000 600 200 400 17,800 NAHDB calculation
1831 19,554 Armstrong
1900 17,000 1,000 200 1,000 14,800 NAHDB calculation 
1910 15,917 Census
1930 17,757 US Indian Office
1973 14,445 BIA
1989 31,716 BIA estimate
1996 188 Advocate Magazine
1999 3,276 Choctaw-Apache Tribe of Ebarb
2000 6,000 Alabama Indian Affairs Commission
2000 59,000 6,000 4,000 9,000 40,000 NAHDB calculation 
2002 8,900 Chief Philip Martin
Other speakers of the same language:
Acolapissa, Bayougoula, Chakchiuma, Chickasaw, Houma, Mobile, Napochi, Okelusa, Pascagoula, Pensacola, Tohome
Choctaw Sites:
Amos, Jack  http://nchgs.org/native/jackamos/
At Home in the Choctaw Nation  http://www.angelfire.com/ok3/greybird7/index.html
Biloxi-Chitimacha-Choctaw of Louisiana  http://www.biloxi-chitimacha.com/
Catlin Paintings  http://catlinclassroom.si.edu/catlin_browsepagetribe.cfm
Chata Anumpa (Choctaw Language)  http://www.rootsweb.com/~itchocta/language.htm
Chief Whitehorn Threw a Fastball  http://www.baseball-almanac.com/players/Arthur_Lee_Daney.shtml
Choctaw Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t17
Choctaw  http://www.arkansasheritage.com/people_stories/nativeamericans/choctaw.asp
Choctaw  http://www.choctaw.com/
Choctaw  http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/choctaw.htm
Choctaw  http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/choctaw.html
Choctaw  http://www.emints.org/ethemes/resources/S00000544.shtml
Choctaw Art Show  http://choctaw-art.com/
Choctaw Brief History  http://www.uga.edu/~toli/information/chochis.html
Choctaw Chief Leads His Mississippi Tribe ...  http://www.azteca.net/aztec/immigrat/choctaw.html
Choctaw Chiefs  http://www.tc.umn.edu/~mboucher/mikebouchweb/choctaw/chchiefs.htm
Choctaw Chronicles  http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Chronicles/v007/v007p148.html
Choctaw Code Talkers  http://www.acaciart.com/stories/archive15.html
Choctaw Code Talkers of WWII  http://www.uwm.edu/~michael/choctaw/code.htm
Choctaw Constitution  http://doc.narf.org/nill/Constitutions/choctawconst/choctawconst.htm
Choctaw History * http://www.museumoftheredriver.org/choctaw.html
Choctaw History, Stories, and Info  http://www.tc.umn.edu/~mboucher/mikebouchweb/choctaw/chocpage.htm
Choctaw Indian  http://www.choctawindian.com/
Choctaw Indian Fair  http://www.choctawindianfair.com/
Choctaw Indian High Stakes Bingo  http://www.durantmainstreet.org/bingo.htm
Choctaw Indian History  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/choctaw/chostawhist.htm
Choctaw Indian Land Transfer  http://www.lib.usm.edu/~archives/m201.htm?m201text.htm~mainFrame
Choctaw Indians  http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/view/CC/bmc57.html
Choctaw Indians  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03692a.htm
Choctaw Indians  http://www.frenchcreoles.com/LouisianaPeople/choctaw/choctaw%20indians.htm
Choctaw Indian Tribe  http://www.nanations.com/choctaw/
Choctaw Language  http://www.louisianafolklife.org/LT/Virtual_Books/Keeping_It/creole_book_keep_choc.html
Choctaw Language  http://www.native-languages.org/choctaw.htm
Choctaw Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=CCT
Choctaw (Language)  http://www.emints.org/ethemes/resources/S00000544.shtml
Choctaw Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=CCT
Choctaw Nation  http://www.rootsweb.com/~itchocta/
Choctaw Nation Hospital  http://www.choctawnationhealth.com/
Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma  http://www.choctawnation.com/
Choctaw Native Americans (YouTube)  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NR6oVc0WDPU
Choctaw Religion  http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/nam/choctaw.html
Choctaws in a Revolutionary Age  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3880/is_200407/ai_n9439230
Choctaws  http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Choctaws.html
Choctaw Tears  http://www.rootsweb.com/~itchocta/
Choctaw Trail of Tears  http://www.thebicyclingguitarist.net/studies/trailoftears.htm
Choctaw Tribe  http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0215453/MYSite/choctaw.html
Choctaw Tribe  http://www.bc.bia.edu/bogue.htm
Choctaw Vocabulary  http://www.native-languages.org/choctaw_words.htm
Code Talkers Finally Get Recognition  http://www.house.gov/lucas/news/speech107/codetalker.html
Dawes Roll by Tribe  http://dawesrolls.com/
Ebarb Choctaw-Apache Tribe  http://www.toledo-bend.com/sabinepar/community/index.asp?request=ebarbtribe
Free Men of Colour and Choctaw Indian Volunteers ... 1814  http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/topics/afam/FRMcpt.htm
Great Walks and Great Talks in Choctaw History  http://www.yvwiiusdinvnohii.net/lit/choc-bk.htm
Hatak Topulli Nan Imokpulo:  Friends Through Adversity  http://merganser.math.gvsu.edu/myth/choc.html
Jena Band of Choctaw  http://www.nsula.edu/folklife/database/cultures/NativeAmer/JenaChoctaw.html
Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians  http://www.manataka.org/page47.html
Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians  http://www.choctaw.org/
Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians Brief History  http://www.mdah.state.ms.us/hpres/A%20Brief%20History%20of%20the%20Choctaw.pdf
Mississipi Choctaw Exhibit ...   http://www.wfu.edu/wfunews/2000/110700m.htm
Mississippi's Choctaw Indian Band ...  http://www.ncpa.org/pd/state/slsept98b.html
Nanih Waiya Mound and Village  http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/mounds/nan.htm
Oklahoma's Frontier Indian Police  http://www.coax.net/people/lwf/fip_pt4.htm
Oklahombi, Joseph  http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/j_oklah.htm
Ones That Got Away - The Choctaw Trail of Tears  http://www.biotechpub.com/indians.htm
Perry, Carrie LeFlore  http://www.anpa.ualr.edu/digital_library/AEPerry/AEPerry_TOC_and_Bio.htm
Preparing Tashlubona and Ta-fula  http://www.yvwiiusdinvnohii.net/history/cook.html
Researching Choctaw Indian Ancestry  http://nchgs.org/native/research/
Takewell Story  http://www.bayou.com/~suelynn/genweb/takewell.html
This is Choctaw ...  http://www.oklachahta.org/new%2003%20genealogy.htm
Tingle, Tim, Storyteller  http://www.choctawstoryteller.com/about.html
Treaty With the Choctaw - 1786  http://www.tngenweb.org/cessions/17860103.html
Treaty With the Choctaw - 1830  http://www.tngenweb.org/cessions/18300927.html

Last updated 10/18/07  Copyright © 2007 by Four Directions Press