FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE

Chumash

 

Ethnie: CHUMASH
Languages: Barbareno, Canaleno, Cruzeno, Ineseno, Obispeno, Purisimeno, Ventureno
Family: Chumashan
Stock: Chumashan
Phylum: Chumashan
Macro-Culture: Southern California
Speakers None      
The Chumash were a California language group comprised of several tribes.  Most of the Chumash cultures were maritime hunter/gatherers, others were inland hunter/gatherers. They were located in the three northern Santa Barbara islands, along the coast from Malibu Canyon north to Estero Beach, and inland as far as the ridge of the coastal range.  The Chumash entire rich culture was destroyed early by Spanish missionization and, later, Mexican overlords. They tried one feeble revolt in 1824. Considerable unrecognized populations exist today in parts of their aboriginal territory.  Whether the Chumash language is part of the Hokan language phylum or a separate phylum is in dispute, though there is a growing consensus that Chumashan is not a component of Hokan.
Aboriginal Locations
(154 villages, Map:  http://www.sbnature.org/chumash/local.htm)
Mainland: Achililliwo, 0Alkash, 0Alkuy, 0Anaquwuk, 0Aquitsu’m, 0Ataxvs, 0Awha’y, 0Axwapsh, Chanu, Chena, Chvhikukunach, Chiliqin, Chimimu, Chvmoli, Chvmonimu’, Chisqio, Chitneqle, Chitpu, Chitqawi, Chixwale, Elewexe, Hawamvw, Heliyik, Helo’, He’lxman, Heqep, Hipuk, Humaliwo, Huwam, 0Itiyaqsh, Kach’antuk’, Kalawshaq’, Kamulus, Kanaputeqnon, Kashtayit, Kashtiq, Kasunalmu, Kayiwish, K’o’owshup, Kimishax, Kuyam, Kuya’mu, Lalimonux, Lishawato’w, Lisiqishi, Lompo’, Lonsoqoq, Lospe, Loxostox’ni, Malapwam, Mat’apxa’w, Matapxwelxwel, Mat’ilha, Mikiw, Mishopshno, Mupu, Muwu, Nipumu’, Noqto, Onomyo, Naxuwi, Petpatsu, Pismu’, Qasil, Qmimu, Q’oloq’, S’apwi, Saq’ka’ya, Saqsiyol, S’axpilil (2), S’eqp’e, Sh’ahuchu, Shalawa, Shilimaqshtush, Shimiyi, Shipuk, Shisholop(2), Shishuch’i, Shnaxalyiwi, Shniwax, Shnoxsh, Shuku, Shumpashi, Shuxwiyuxus?, Sis’a, Siwaya, Siswow, Sisxulkuy, Siwaya, S’omis, Soxtonokmu, Snisewi, Sqe’ele, Sqene’n, Stemeqtatimi, Step, Stuk, Sumo, Sumuawawa, Siwil, Sxaliwilimu’, Syuxtun, Ta’apu, Ta’lopop, Tashilpun, Tech, Teqepsh, Texax, Tkiye, Tipexpa, Tipu, Tsikyiw, Tsimosmu’, Tsipxatu, Tsiqsitye, Tsitkawayu, Tsit’oyo’, Tsitxala, Tsiwikon, Tso, Washlayik, Wasna, Wenexe’l, Wexetmimu, Wililik’, Wishap, Xalam, Xana’yan (134 villaegs).
San Miguel Island (Tuqan): Niwoyomi, Tuqan (2 villages).
Santa Cruz Island (Limuw): Ch’ishi, L’akayamu, L’alale, Liyam, Lu’upsh, Nanawani, Mashchal, Shawa, Swaxil, Xaxas (10 villages)
Santa Rosa island (Wimal): Helewashkuy, Hichimin, Nawani, Niaqla, Nilal’uy, Nimkilkil, Silimihi (8 villages)
Present Locations
SANTA YNEZ RESERVATION, Santa Ynez
Groups with Recognition Petitions
COASTAL BAND OF CHUMASH INDIANS, Santa Barbara
Year History
1542  Encountered by Cabrillo and Ferrelo
1602  Visited by Viscaino
1769  Portola passed through territory
1772  Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolusa established
1782  Mission San Buenaventura established
1786 Mission Santa Barbara established
1787  Mission La Purisma Concepción established
1801  Secretly began returns to native religions
1802  Pneumonia and diphtheria epidemics
1804  Mission Santa Inez established
1806  Measles epidemic
1821  Most of tribe indentured to Mexican feudal barons
1824  La Purisma Revolt, relatively feeble
1844  Epidemic wiped out Purisma group
1848 Woman rescued from San Nicolas Island and brought to Santa Barbara Mission after being stranded for 18 years
1855 109 settled at Zanja de Cota Reservation
Year Population Source
1700 10,000 NAHDB calculation
1780  10,000 Kroeber estimate
1800  9,000 NAHDB calculation
1831  2,788 Registered at missions 
1832  2,471 Cook estimate
1848  1,150 Cook estimate
1852 1,050 Cook estimate
1865  659 Cook estimate
1880  200 Cook estimate
1900  100 NAHDB calculation
1910  38 Census 
1920  74 Cook estimate
1930  14 Census 
1974  40 Reservation population 
1989  223 BIA estimate 
2000  1,500 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
None
Chumash links:
The 1812 Santa Barbara Earthquake:  The Chumash on Santa Rosa Island  http://www.crustal.ucsb.edu/ics/sb_eqs/1812/chumash.html
8,000 Years of Change at Morro Bay  http://www.farwestern.com/morrobay/morro.htm
Analysis of the Flaked Stone Assemblage ... Cambria  http://www.californiaprehistory.com/reports01/rep0019.html
Ancient Bones May Rewrite History  http://www.sbnature.org/research/anthro/charling.htm
Arlington Springs Remains  http://www.friendsofpast.org/earliest-americans/california.html
Barbareno Chumash  http://www.geocities.com/Athens/9479/chumash.html
And Both Parents are Fond of Their Children  http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/ioa/pubs/backdirt/spring99/chumash.html
Bibliography on Chumash Indians  http://www.lib.calpoly.edu/departments/pdf/Chumash%20Indians.pdf
Chumash - A California Case Study  http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/e/t/etr109/chumash1.htm
Chumash  http://projects.edtech.sandi.net/sessions/indians/chumash.htm
Chumash  http://www.nativewiki.org/Chumash
The Chumash  http://www.californiahistory.net/2_natives/chumash.htm
The Chumash  http://www.cinms.nos.noaa.gov/cr/chumash.html
The Chumash  http://cogweb.ucla.edu/Chumash/Fagan_95.html
The Chumash  http://emuseum.mnsu.edu/cultural/northamerica/chumashindians.html
The Chumash Student Project   http://www.foothill.goleta.k12.ca.us/classroom.projects/2002/kmceachen_chumash/k_mceachen.htm
The Chumash  Student Project  http://www.sbceo.k12.ca.us/~aliso/ohara/SaltMarsh/history.htm
Chumash Art Rock  http://projects.edtech.sandi.net/kimbrough/californiahistory/chumashartrock.htm
Chumash Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t18
Chumash Casino  http://www.chumashcasino.com/
Chumash Community Returns to Limuw  http://www.nps.gov/chis/press091004.htm
Chumash Clothing Student project  http://www.sierracanyon.pvt.k12.ca.us/school/chumash/clothing.html
Chumash Diorama  http://home.earthlink.net/~jboren/portfolio/chumash.html
Chumash Dream Images  http://davidpaladin.olicentral.com/Archives/Chumash/Chumash.htm
Chumash Exhibit  http://www.geocities.com/prynear/chumashwebquest.htm
Chumash Food Supply  http://www.chumashlanguage.com/langs/lang-00-fr.html
Chumash Games  http://www.fraziermtn.com/fpschool/GAMES.HTM
Chumash Grinding Stones  http://www.centralcoasttourist.com/San_Luis_Obispo_CO/SLO_Area_Info/Cayucos/Indian_Grinding_Stones/indian_grinding_stones.html
Chumash History  http://www.wishtoyo.org/projects-cultural-chumash-history.html
Chumash History  http://www.santaynezchumash.org/history.html
Chumash Index  http://projects.edtech.sandi.net/encanto/nativecal/chumashindex.htm
Chumash Indian Baskets  http://www.californiabaskets.com/pages/chumashhome.html
The Chumash Indian Council of San Luis Obispo County - http://www.angelfire.com/id/newpubs/slo.html
Chumash Indian Legends  http://www.indianlegend.com/chumash/chumash_index.htm
Chumash Indian Life  http://www.sbnature.org/research/anthro/chumash/index.htm
Chumash Indian Paintings  http://www.sitontop.com/KDImages/ip_photos.html
Chumash Indian Tribe  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/california/chumashindianhist.htm
Chumash Indians  http://www.calpoly.edu/~mstiles/chumash.html
Chumash Indians  http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/chumashindians.html
Chumash Indians  http://www.chumashindian.com/
Chumash indians - Mural  http://www.santapaulamurals.org/mural2-chumash.htm
Chumash Indian Paintings  http://www.alumni.caltech.edu/~randysal/chumash.html
Chumash Indians - Social and Religious Gatherings  http://www.angelfire.com/id/newpubs/gatherings.html
Chumash Indians - Ventura County  http://www.angelfire.com/id/newpubs/ven77.html
Chumash Indian Tribe  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/chumash/chumashindiantribe.htm
Chumash Interpretive Center  http://www.chumashcenter.org/
Chumash Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=CHS
Chumash Language  http://www.languagehat.com/archives/001170.php
Chumash Languages  http://nativenet.uthscsa.edu/archive/ng/95/0114.html
Chumash Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=CHS
Chumash Life  http://www.sbnature.org/chumash/daily.htm
Chumash Links Student project  http://www.lennox.k12.ca.us/jefferson/chumash.htm
Chumash Literature  http://www.indians.org/welker/chumash.htm
Chumash:  Mission Tour  http://missiontour.org/related/chumash.htm
Chumash Painted Cave  http://www.parks.ca.gov/default.asp?page_id=602
Chumash People Student project  http://www.frazmtn.com/fpschool/People.htm
The Chumash People  http://www.chumashlanguage.com/langs/lang-00-fr.html
The Chumash People:  Materials for Teachers and Students  http://www.rock-art.com/books/sbmnh1.htm
Chumash Point  http://www.sbcc.cc.ca.us/environmentalhorticulture/website/Chumashpreserve.html
Chumash Rock Art  http://www.calpoly.edu/~mstiles/rockart.html
Chumash Rock Art at Burro Flats   http://members.aol.com/jandjmcmanus/compassrose/crpg-rk0.html
Chumash - SFSU Narrative  http://bss.sfsu.edu/calstudies/NativeWebPages/chumash.html
Chumash Sling  http://www.abotech.com/Articles/Campbell02.htm
Chumash Sports and Recreation  http://www.sierracanyon.pvt.k12.ca.us/school/chumash/games.html
Chumash Translation  http://www.language-museum.com/c/chumash.htm
Chumash Villages  http://www.guaddunes.com/chumashmap.html
Chumash Walnut Shell Dice Game  http://www.rain.org/camp96/chumash_do1.html
Chumash Who Live in Ventura Country  http://www.angelfire.com/id/newpubs/ven77.html
Chumash Woman Earns Doctorate  http://independent.com/news/2007/jun/11/chumash-woman-earns-doctorate/
Dolphin Clan Chumash  http://www.dolphinclan.gq.nu/
Eclipse in Chumash Petroglyphs  http://www.thing.net/~grist/l&d/ancestors/chuma01.htm
Endangered North American Indian Languages  http://www.helsinki.fi/lehdet/uh/298j.html
Evidence for the Indian Occupation of Santa Barbara Island  http://www.bsu.edu/web/01bkswartz/SBIS.pdf
Ethos Chumash (books)  http://www.almudo.com/ethnos/Chumash.htm
First European Images  http://www.californiahistory.net/3_PAGES/alta_firstimages.htm
Fish Remains in Chumash Sites  http://www.pcas.org/Vol34N1/341VSlyk.pdf
Flaked Stone Assemblage ... Cambria ...  http://www.californiaprehistory.com/reports01/rep0019.html
Gaviota Coast Conservancy:  Chumash Culture  http://www.gaviotacoastconservancy.org/chumash.html
Guadalupe Restoration Project  http://www.guaddunes.com/culture.html
History of Simi Valley:  Chumash Period  http://www.simihistory.com/Chumash.htm
Household Archeology of the Channel Islands  http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/ioa/pubs/backdirt/spring97/arnold.html
Images of Rock Art Sites ... Burro Flats ...  http://www.californiaprehistory.com/reports02/rep0037.html
Ineseno Chumash  http://www.christusrex.org/www1/pater/JPN-ineseno.html
Inezeno Chumash Language Tutorial  http://www.chumashlanguage.com/langs/lang-00-fr.html
La Purisma Mission History 1787-1812  http://www.lapurisimamission.org/history.htm
L. A.'s Original People  http://www.losangelesalmanac.com/topics/History/hi05.htm
Looking Back [?]  http://www.meyna.com/chumash2.html
Lone Woman of San Nicolas Island (Juana Maria) - Chumash  http://www.powersource.com/gallery/womansp/chumash.html
Nipumu Village Project    http://www.rain.org/camp96/chumash1.html
Paddling the Waters of Time  http://www.turtletrack.org/Issues01/Co09222001/CO_09222001_Paddling.htm
Pictographs:  Chumash  http://www.sinay.com/rockart/rock/rock-7.htm
Pictographs from the Chumash Region  http://members.aol.com/jroache1/chumpp2.html
Pitted Stones from Cambria  http://www.californiaprehistory.com/reports01/rep0015.html
The Rainbow Bridge, a Chumash Legend  http://www.rain.org/camp96/chumash_myth3.html
The Red Abalone Midden Project  http://www.californiaprehistory.com/contsubj.html
The Rock Paintings of the Chumash  http://www.ahpweb.org/articles/chumash.html
Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Indians  http://www.santaynez.org/
Shell Bead Analysis ... Cayucos ...  http://www.californiaprehistory.com/reports01/rep0018.html
Trail to Kashtiq  http://www.scvhistory.com/scvhistory/johnson-kashtiq.htm
Who Are the Chumash?  http://www.rain.org/eagle/chumash1.htm
Wishtoyo  http://www.wishtoyo.org/
Woman Spirit: Juana Maria  http://www.meyna.com/chumash.html
World of the Chumash  http://www.beachcalifornia.com/lompoc3.html
Last updated 06/27/07   Copyright © 2007 by Four Directions Press