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Clackamas Tribes

 

 

Ethnie: CLACKAMAS TRIBES
Language: Upper Chinookan
Family: Chinookan
Stock: Chinookan
Phylum: Penutian
Macro-Culture: Northwestern
Speakers 69    1996 
     The Clackamas Tribes were sedentary, relied heavily on fishing, and were avid traders including the trading of slaves.  The Clackamas were on the south side of the Columbia River from Tongue Point to the Cascades and on the north from the Lewis River to the Cascades.  Chinookan Jargon was the lingua franca (trade language) of the region.  They suffered enormously from the White influx even though they had good relations with the early White traders.
Aboriginal Locations (Villages)
OR Clackamas (?), Clowewalla (3?), Multnomah (10), Watlala (6)
WA Cathlapotle (2)
Oregon Present Locations
OR  Grande Ronde Reservation, Grande Ronde  (Clackamas, Clowewalla, Multnomah) http://www.grandronde.org/
OR  Warm Springs Reservation,  Warm Springs (Watlala)   http://www.warmsprings.com/
WA  Yakima Reservation, Toppenish (Cathlapotle)  http://www.ohwy.com/wa/y/yakamana.htm
Year History
1792 Visited by Robert Gray and John Boit, and later by Capt. George Vancouverr
1805 Visited by Lewis and Clark who wintered at Fort Clatsop near present Astoria
1811 Astoria founded; David Thompson explored the length of the Columbia River
1824 Smallpox epidemic
1829 Smallpox epidemic (combined with earlier epidemic reduced population 80%)
1830 Malaria epidemic
1841 Influx of Oregon Trail settlers, conflicts began
1847 Measles epidemic
1855 Yakima Reservation created
1856 Oregon Grande Ronde Reservation established
1956 Grande Ronde Reservation terminated
1974 Confederated Tribes of Grande Ronde established 
2001 BIA recognized Chinook Nation of Washington
Year U.S. Population OR WA Source
1700 11,500 10,200 1,300 NAHDB calculation
1780 11,500 Mooney estimate
Cathlapotle   1,300
Clackamas    2,500
Clowewalla      900
Multnomah    3,600
Watlala          3,200
1800 9,000 8,100 900 NAHDB calculation
1806 Lewis and Clark
Cathlapotle       900
Clackamas     1,800
Clowewalla       650
Multnomah            ?
Watlala          2,800
1900 500 500 0 NAHDB calculation (Had confederated into other tribes)
2000 2,000 2,0000 0 NAHDB calculation
2001 2,000     Upon federal recognition
Other speakers of the same language:
None
Clackamas Tribes Sites:
Buried Treasure:  Archeologists ... http://www.tdn.com/articles/2004/12/11/area_news/news03.txt
Capitalizing the Chinook  http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/InNews/fishnews0632004.htm
Cathlapotle Plank House Pole Raising Ceremony  http://www.lewisriver.com/ridgefield/wildlife/cathlapotle/postraising/
Chief of the Multnomah Tribe  http://www.nationalacademy.org/perm/macneil.html
Chinook  http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/chinook.html
Chinook  Student Project  http://www.chenowith.k12.or.us/tech/subject/social/natam_or/chinook.html
Chinook Artifacts Found  http://data2.itc.nps.gov/digest/headline.cfm?type=Announcements&id=3117&urlarea=npsnews
Chinook Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t143
Chinook Book  http://chinookjargon.home.att.net/phillips.htm
Chinook Dictionary, Catechism, Prayers, and Hymns  http://www.canadiana.org/ECO/mtq?doc=04222
Chinook Indian  http://www.chinookindian.com/
Chinook Indian Hat  http://lewisandclarktrail.com/indianhat.htm
Chinook Indian Jargon  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/chinook/chinookindianhist.htm
Chinook Indians  http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/native/chi.html
Chinook Indians  http://www.nationalgeographic.com/lewisandclark/record_tribes_083_14_3.html
Chinook Jargon  http://www.ydli.org/bcother/chinook.htm
Chinook Jargon  http://www.1st-hand-history.org/Hibben/album1.html
Chinook Jargon  http://www.fortlangley.ca/Chinook%20Jargon/time.html
Chinook Jargon and How to Use It  http://chinookjargon.home.att.net/shaw.htm
Chinook Language   http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chh
Chinook Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=CHH
Chinook Literature  http://www.indians.org/welker/chinook.htm
Chinook Literature  http://www.indigenouspeople.net/chinook.htm
Chinook Nation  http://chinooknation.org/
Chinook Native Americans  Student Project  http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/schools/travilahes/stwork03/writing/Chinook.pdf
Chinook People  http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/chinook.htm
Chinook Rudiments  http://chinookjargon.home.att.net/ljcr24.htm
Chinook Texts  http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/nw/chinook/
Chinook Tribe  Student Project  http://www.beavton.k12.or.us/jacob_wismer/leahy/2003/native_american_posters/chinook.htm
Chinook Tribes  http://logos.uoregon.edu/explore/oregon/chtribes.html
Chinook Wawa Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=CRW
Clackamas People  http://www.usgennet.org/alhnorus/ahorclak/clackamas.html
Coyote and Multnomah Falls  http://www.ilhawaii.net/~stony/lore25.html
Dictionary of Chinook Jargon  http://chinookjargon.home.att.net/gibbs.htm
Dictionary of Chinook Jargon  http://www.canadiana.org/ECO/mtq?doc=14272
First People of Clackamas County  http://www.usgennet.org/alhnorus/ahorclak/indians.html
Legend of Multnomah Falls  http://lewisandclarktrail.com/section4/orcities/portland/legend/
Legend of the Chinook Indians  http://www.hprcc.unl.edu/nebraska/stuproj/ametf99/wenzl/chinook.html
Legends of Vancouver  http://www.robirda.com/chinooktalk.html
Lewis and Clark Bicentennial  http://www.astoria-usa.com/lewis-clark.html
Lewis and Clark Bicentennial Mural  http://www.washington.edu/burkemuseum/lewisclark/painting.html
Lewis and Clark:  Chinook on the Columbia  http://www.washingtonhistory.org/wshm/lewisandclark/chinook-drawings.htm
Lower Chinookan Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=CHH
Lower Columbia River Indains  http://schools.gorge.net/hrcsd/westside/4mchinookmaddie.htm
Northwest:  Chinookan Culture and Ethnobotany  http://www.fourdir.com/northwest_chinookan_culture.htm
Once Dying Chinook Language ...  http://www.turtletrack.org/Issues04/Co06192004/CO_06192004_Chinook_Language.htm
Potlatch of the Northwest Coast  http://www.santarosa.edu/museum/potlatch.htm
She Who Watches  http://www.ochcom.org/chinook
Tenas Wawa - Chinook Jargon  http://www.wrvmuseum.org/journal/journal_0702.htm
Upper Chinookan  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=WAC
US Recognizes Chinook Tribe  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/1099968.stm
Watlala Indian Tribe  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/chinook/watlalaindianhist.htm

Last updated 10/22/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press