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Columbia

 

 

Ethnie: COLUMBIA (SINKIUSE)
Language: Columbia-Wenatchi
Family: Southern Interior Salish
Stock: Salishan
Phylum: Mosan
Macro-Culture: Northwest Plateau
Speakers 5 or fewer 1999 McDonald
     The Columbia were semi-sedentary hunter/gatherer tribes or the Northwestern Plateau.  They were located on the east side of the Columbia River from Fort Okanogan to Point Eaton.  They traded with the first Whites to arrive, but ultimately had conflicts with and suffered from the later settlers.  They briefly had a reservation called the Columbia Reservation but were finally settled on and confederated into the Colville Reservation.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
WA (3 to 7 bands)
Oregon Present Locations
WA  Colville Reservation, Nespelem
Year History
1781 Smallpox epidemic
1809 David Thompson established Kullyspell House trading post on Lake Pend d'Orielle
1810 David Thompson established Spokane House
1811 David Thompson explored the length of the Columbia River
1841 Influx of Oregon Trail settlers began, conflicts followed
1853 Smallpox epidemic
1855 Major Heller and 100 men routed in battle by a joint force of Yakimas, Columbians, Wanapams, Wallawallas, Palousas, and Spokanes ... "Toppenish Fight"
1870 Located on the east side of the Columbia just below Grand Coulee
1872 Lake Chelan Earthquake, gases emitted, numerous deaths, no child under age 2 survived
1883 Treaty with Chief Moses
Year U.S. Population Source
1700 800 NAHDB calculation
1780 800 Mooney estimate
1800 500 NAHDB calculation
1900 350 NAHDB calculation (Had confederated into Colville) 
1904 355 US Indian Office
1908 299 Swanton
2000 0 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Methow, Wenatchee
Columbia Sites:
Changing Columbia Basin  http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/anth481/sal/crintro1.htm
Chief Moses ...  http://www.ghosttownsusa.com/bttales23.htm
Columbian Indinan Language  http://www.native-languages.org/columbian.htm
Columbia Treaty with Chief Moses  http://www.ccrh.org/comm/river/treaties/moses.htm
Columbia-Wenatchi Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=COL
Columbia-Wenatchi Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=COL
Cultures Clash:  The Land Grab  http://www.ccrh.org/comm/moses/cultures1.html
Ethnobotany of Middle Columbia Native Americans  http://www.cwnp.org/ethnobot2.html
Lake Chelan and Wapato Point History  http://www.wapatopoint.com/history.html
Lake Chelan Earthquake of 1872  http://www.pnsn.org/HIST_CAT/1872/Weston/washington/lkchelan2.html
Natives of the Northwest and their Legacy  http://www.pbase.com/mad_monte1/natives_of_the_pacific_northwest
Northwest Plateau Culture and Ethnobotany  http://www.fourdir.com/northwest_plateau_culture.htm
Oregon Trail  http://linnhistory.peak.org/1853/1853immore.html
Sinkiuse Indian Tribe  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/salish/sinkiusehits.htm
Splawn, Andrew J. ,,,  http://pw1.netcom.com/~carpentg/aj.html

Last updated 10/27/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press