FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE

 

Costanoans

 

Ethnie: COSTANOAN (OHLONE)
Language: Costanoan
Family: Utian
Stock: Penutian
Phylum: Macro-Penutian
Macro-Culture: Central California
Speakers None      
The Costanoans were a sedentary hunter/gatherer language group of the central California coast. They were located along the coast between San Francisco Bay and the Salinas River and inland to the Mt. Diablo Range. The ethnie was destroyed by the abuses of missionization and the White influx after the gold rush. Many absorbed into other cultures. Descendants of others remain in small unrecognized groups today.
Aboriginal Locations
Dialects (Number of villages)  Northern (23), Southern (13)
Interim Locations
Monterey, San Francisco, San Juan Bautista, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Soledad
Groups With Recognition Petitions Pending
AMAH BAND OF OHLONE/COSTANOAN INDIANS, Woodside
COSTANOAN BAND OF CARMEL MISSION INDIANS, Monrovia
COSTANOAN OHLONE RUMSEN-MUTSEN TRIBE, Watsonville
COSTANOAN-RUMSEN CARMEL TRIBE, Chino
INDIAN CANYON BAND OF COSTANOAN. MUTSUN INDIANS, Hollister
OHLONE/COSTANOAN - ESSELEN NATION
OHLONE/COSTANOAN MUWEKMA TRIBE, San Jose
Year History
  500 Archeological and linguistic estimate of arrival to present San Francisco
1602 Sebastian Viscaino arrived at Monterey
1769 San Francisco Bay discovered by Sgt. Jose de Ortega
1770 Mission San Carlos Borromeo established at Carmel
1776 Presidio of San Francisco dedicated and Mission San Francisco de Assisi founded
1777 Respiratory epidemic; Mission Santa Clara de Assisi and Pueblo de San Jose established
1791 Mission Santa Cruz established
1793 Native uprising in San Francisco
1797 Mission San Jose de Guadalupe and San Juan Bautista established
1800 Uprising at Mission San Jose
1802 Pneumonia and diphtheria epidemics
1863 Carmel band removed south to Chino
Year Population Source
1700 7,000 NAHDB calculation
1770 7,000 Kroeber estimate
1800 3000 NAHDB calculation
1848 1,000 Cook estimate
1852 900 Cook estimate
1880 300 Cook estimate
1900 50 NAHDB calculation
2000 250 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
None
Costanoan Sites
Back in the Good Ohlone Days  http://lomaprieta.sierraclub.org/lp0102_Ohlone.html
Costanoan Dancer  http://www.arkis.santacruz.k12.ca.us/costanoapics/pages/costanoan%20dancer.html
Costanoan:  Historic Background  http://www.seasurveyor.com/archreport/4.0%20historic%20Bkrd.htm
Costanoan Indians:  Cultural History  http://www.schonwalder.org/An_Ocean/mbay_culture.htm
Costanoan Indian Tribe  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/california/costanoanindianhist.htm
Costanoan Language (Northern)  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=CST
Costanoan Language (Southern)  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=CSS
Costanoan Linguistic Lineage (Northern)  http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_lang_family.asp?code=CST
Costanoan Linguistic Lineage (Southern)  http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_lang_family.asp?code=CSS
Costanoan Rumsen Carmel Tribe  http://crc.nativeweb.org/
Costanoan Rumsen Carmel Tribe (History)  http://www.costanoanrumsen.org/tribalhistory.html
Costanoan Rumsen Carmel Tribe of Chino, California  http://www.costanoanrumsen.org/
Culture and Ethnobotany  http://www.fourdir.com/central_california_culture.htm
The Emeryville Site ...  http://www.californiaprehistory.com/reports01/rep0008.html
The Earliest Bay Area Residents  http://www.wccusd.k12.ca.us/ohlone/ohlone.htm
Early History of San Francisco to Big Sur    http://www.carmelvalley.com/cvbin/history.html
Historic Background  http://www.spn.usace.army.mil/archaeology/rockremoval/4.0historicbkrd.htm
History and the Atmosphere  http://www.skysailing.com/pages/essay.htm
Indian Canyon, California:  The Mutsum (Costanoan) Indians  http://www.nativenet.uthscsa.edu/archive/nl/9405/0085.html
Indian Canyon  http://www.indiancanyon.org/home.html
Karkin Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=KRB
Linguistics and Prehistory:  Monterrey County  http://www.californiaprehistory.com/contcounty.html
A Little About the Native Peoples of the Central California Coast  http://www.arkis.santacruz.k12.ca.us/costanoans.html
Mutsun Langauge  http://www.mpi.nl/world/persons/private/natwar/private.htm
Muwekma Ohlone  http://www.muwekma.org
Muwekma Ohlone  http://www.cultures.com/features/Muwekma/history_01s.html
Muwekma Ohlone Tribe of the San Francisco Bay Area  http://www.islaiscreek.org/ohlonehistcultfedrecog.html
No Stone Unturned Genealogy  http://hometown.aol.com/Inammec/Indian.html
Obsidian Studies  http://users.ap.net/~bpacs/ala42.html
Ohlone  http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/courses/is290-2/f98/oaklandkids/sites/ohlone/
Ohlone/Costanoan Esselen Nation  http://www.esselennation.com/
Ohlone/Costanoan Indians  http://www.mchsmuseum.com/ohlone.html
Ohlone Culture:  Overview  http://www.santacruzpl.org/history/spanish/ohlone.shtml
Ohlone Indians:  Photos  http://www.sfmission.com/cgi-bin/gallery/imageFolio.cgi?direct=San_Francisco/Mission_District/History/Birthplace_of_the_SF_Bay_Area/Ohlone_Indians&img=
Ohlone Literature  http://www.indians.org/welker/ohlone.htm
Ohlone Medicine  http://www.cabrillo.edu/~crsmith/OhloneMed.html
Ohlone Mural  http://www.cruzio.com/~djj/ssc/murals/words/tour/ohlone.html
Ohlone Religion and Creation Stories  http://members.tripod.com/~Sawols/ohlonestories.html
Ohlone - SFSU Narrative  http://bss.sfsu.edu/calstudies/NativeWebPages/costanoan.html
Ohlone Village  http://tecfa.unige.ch/moo/book1/node33.html
Ohlone:  Viscaino's Account  http://www.californiahistory.net/3_PAGES/manilla_ohlone.htm
Ohlone Woman Drawing  http://www.escusd.k12.ca.us/mission_trail/SCruz/Ohlone.html
Overview of Ohlone Culture  http://www.santacruzpl.org/history/spanish/ohlone.shtml
Plant a Seed, Grow a Tree ...  http://www.plantaseedgrowatreeforamerica.org/main.htm
Rosetta Project:  Language Overview  http://www.rosettaproject.org/live/search/detailedlanguagerecord?ethnocode=CSS
Rumsen Costanoan Coyote  http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/ca/scc/scc04.htm
The Sacred Use of Tobacco  http://www.udayton.edu/~health/syllabi/tobacco/native04.htm
San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo:  A Mission Record of  the California Indans (1811)  http://www.notfrisco.com/almanac/kroeber01/scarlos.html
Stanford Man II, an Early Grave ...  http://www.californiaprehistory.com/contcounty.html
Thatched Ohlone Style House  http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-tule_shelter.html
Understanding the Composition of Costanoan Indians  http://hometown.aol.com/Inammec/Costpaper.html
An Unvanished Story  http://www.cr.nps.gov/seac/sfprehis.htm
Vertabrate Remains ... Santa Cruz County  http://www.californiaprehistory.com/reports01/rep0005.html
Yelamu Ohlone Tribal Group  http://www.islaiscreek.org/ohlonehistorybackground.html
Last updated 07/12/07   Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press