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Cree

 

 

Ethnie: CREE
Languages (speakers): Moose Cree (4,500), Plains Cree (34,000), Swampy Cree (4,500), Woods Cree (35,000)
Language Group: Cree
Family: Central Algonquian
Stock: Algonquian
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: Great Plains, Eastern Woodlands, and Sub-Arctic
      The Cree were a language group of the Canadian plains and woodlands. They extended from James Bay to the Saskatchewan River. They were comprised of two major subdivisions and several sub-tribes. The Cree acquired guns early, and used them in conflicts with the Athapaskan tribes. The Cree were party in the only major Canadian versus Indians war in the two so called Reil Rebellions. They allied and mingled their blood with many other plains tribes.
Aboriginal Locations
  Plains Cree (Mšmškitce-wiinnuŻk or Big Gizzard People, Paskokopa- wiinnuŻk or Willow People, Nutimi- iniuŻk or Poplar People, Cipi-wiinnuŻk or River People, Saka-winouŻk or Bush People, MasnipiwinuŻk or Painted or Pictured People, Little Dogs, Asinskau-winiuŻk or Stone People)
ON Woodland Cree (Barren Ground Cree, Fort Albany Band, Kesagami Lake Band, Moose Factory Band)
PQ Woodland Cree (Northern TÍte de Boule, Southern TÍte de Boule)
SK Plains Cree (Katepoisipi-wiinuŻk or Calling River Band, Teipoaian-winiuŻk or Chipewyan People, NiopwštŻk or Cree-Assiniboine, SakwatsŻuk or Bush Assiniboine
Present Locations
AB Alexander Indian Band, Morinville PQ Abitibiwinni Band, Pikogen Indian Reserve, Amos
  Beaver Lake First Nation Band, La la Biche   Chisasibi Band, Fort George
  Bigstone Cree Nation, Gleichen   Eastmain Band, Eastmain
  Cold Lake First Nation, Cold Lake   Mistissini Band, Mistassini Lake
  Driftpile Cree Nation, Driftpile   Nemaska Band, Nemaska
  Duncan's Indian Band, Brownvale   Whapmagoostui Band, Wapmagoostui
  Enoch Cree Nation, Winterburn   Waskaganish Band, James Bay
  Ermineskin Cree Nation, Hobbem   Wemindji Band, Paint Hills
  Fort McMurray First Nation Band, Fort McMurray    
  Frog Lake, Frog Lake SK Beardy & Okemasis Indian Band, Duck Lake
  Grouard Indian Band, Grouard   Big River Indian Band, Debden
  Kehewin Cree Nation, Bonnyville   Canoe Lake Band, Canoe Lake
  Little Red River Cree Nation, High Level   Cowessess Band, Broadview
  Long Lake Cree Nation, Kehewin Reserve   Cumberland House Indian Band, Cumberland House
  Louis Bull Indian Band, Hobbem   Day Star Band, Wynyard
  Lubicon Lake Cree Indian Band, Peace River   Flying Dust Indian Band, Kylemore
  Paul Indian Band, Duffield   Gordon Indian Band, Punnichy
  Saddle Lake Indian Band   Island Lake Indian Band, Loon Lake
  Samson Indian Band, Hobben   James Smith Indian Band, Kinistino
  Sawridge Indian Band, Slave Lake   John Smith Indian Band, Birch Hills
  Sturgeon Lake Indian Band, Valleywiew   Joseph Bighead Indian Band, Pierceland
  Sucker Lake Indian Band, Enlida   Kahkewistahaw Indian Band, Broadview
  Sunchild Cree First Nation, Rocky Mountain House   Kawacatoose Indian Band, Quinton
  Swan River Indian Band, Kinuso   Lake La Ronge Indian Band, La Ronge
  Tallcree Indian Band, Fort Vermillion   Little Black Bear Indian Band, Goodeve
  Whitefish Lake Indian Band, Atikameg   Little Pine Indian Band, Paynton
      Lucky Man Indian Band, North Battleford
MB Chemewawin Indian Band, Easterville   Makwa Sahgaeihcan Indian Band, Loon Lake
  Cross Lake Indian Band, Cross Lake   Mistawasis Indian Band,  Leask
  Fisher River Cree Nation, Koostatak   Montreal Lake Indian Band, Montreal Lake
  Fox Lake Indian Band, Gilliam   Moosomin Indian Band, Cochin
  Garden Hill Indian Band, Island Lake   Muskeg Lake Indian Band, Leask
  God's Lake Indian Band, God's Lake   Nekaneet Indian Band, Maple Lake
  God's River Indian Band, God's River   Ochapowace Indian Band, Broadview
  Grand Rapids Indian Band, Grand Rapids   Okanese Indian Band, Balcarres
  Indian Birch Band, Birch River   One Arrow Indian Band, Batoche
  Mathias Colomb Indian Band, Pukatawagan   Onion Lake Indian Band, Onion Lake
  Moose Lake Indian Band, Moose Lake   Pasqua Indian band, Fort Qu'Appelle
  Nelson House Indian Band, Nelson House   Peepeekisis Indian Band, Balcarres
  Norway House Indian Band, Norway House   Pelican Lake Indian Band,  Leoville
  Opaskwayak Indian Band, The Pas   Piapot Indian Band, Craven
  Oxford House Indian Band, Oxford House   Poundmaker Indian Band, Paynton
  Peguis Indian Band, Hodgson   Red Earth Indian Band, Red Earth
  Poplar River First Nation Band, Negginan   Red Pheasant Indian Band, Cando
  Red Sucker Lake First Nation, Red Sucker Lake   Sandy Lake First Nation, Shell Lake
  St. Theresa Point First Nation, St. Thesesa Point   Shoal Lake First Nation, Pakaw Lake
  Shamatawwa First Nation Band, Shamatawwa   Star Blanket Indian Band, Balcarres
  Split Lake Cree First nation Band, Split Lake   Sturgeon Lake Indian Band, Spruce Home
  War Lake Indian Band, War Lake   Sweetgrass Indian Band,  Gallivan
  Wasagamak Indian Band, Wasagamak   Thunderchild Indian Band, Turtleford
  York Factory Indian Band, via Ilford   Waterhen Lake Indian Band, Waterhen Lake
      Whitebear Indian Band, Carlyle
MT Rocky Boy's Reservation, Box Elder   Witchikan Lake Indian Band, Spiritwood
       
ON Attawapiskat First Nation, Attawapiskat    
  Bearskin Lake First Nation, Bearskin Lake    
  Big Trout Lake First Nation, Big Trout Lake    
  Brunswick House First Nation, Chapleau    
  Chapleu Cree First Nation, Sault Ste. Marie    
  Constance Lake First Nation, Calstock    
  Deer Lake First Nation, Deer Lake    
  Fort Severn First Nation, Fort Severn    
  Kasabonika Lake First Nation, Kasabonika Lake    
  Kingfisher Lake First Nation, Kingfisher Lake    
  Matachewan First Nation, Matachewan    
  Moose Factory First nation, Moose Factory    
  Muskrat Dam First Nation    
  New Post First Nation, Cochrane    
  North Caribou Lake First Nation, Patricia    
  Sachigo Lake First Nation, Sachigo Lake    
  Sandy Lake First Nation, Sandy Lake    
  Wapekeka First Nation, Wapekeka Reserve    
  Weenusk First Nation, Winisk    
  Wunnumin First Nation, Wunnumin    
Year History
  900 Archeological estimate of the beginning of Cree cultural continuity
1640 First became known to the Jesuit missionaries
1661 Mentioned in Jesuit Relations
1667 Came in contact with Hudson Bay Company
1670 Fort Charles established for Coasters
1695 Nemiscau post established for Inlanders
1697 West Main Cree visited by De La Potherie
1698 Albany sloop began trading with Coasters
1781 Upon obtaining guns, attacked Sekani and Slavey and pushed west and south; Swampy Cree smallpox epidemic, 50% loss
1786 Reduced to less than half their former numbers by smallpox
1852 Anglican Rev. E. A. Watkins arrived at Fort George
1869 Plains Cree smallpox epidemic
1875 Treaty No. 5
1879 Buffalo extinct in Canada
1884 Canadian Pacific Rail Road completed
1885 Cree defeated in Northwest Rebellion,surrendered at Fort Pitt
1905 Treaty No. 9
1975 James Bay Agreement for hydro-electric development
Year Total Population AB MB MT ON PQ SK Source
1670 20,000             Mooney estimate
1700 20,000   9,000   4,400 2,200 4,400 NAHDB calculation
1776 20,000             Swanton
1800 18,000 3,700 3,200 500 3,100 1,600 5,900 NAHDB calculation
1900 12,000 2,500 2,100 300 2,100 1,100 3,900 NAHDB calculation 
1930 10,000             Swanton
2000 153,000 38,000 43,000 500 14,500 8,000 49,000 NAHDB calculation
2005 155,769 38,955 43,403 625 14,957 8,294 49,535   Various
Other speakers of the same language:
None
Cree Sites:
Canoe Lake Cree Nation  http://www.mltc.net/canoe%20lake%20profile.htm
Chippewa Cree Tribe  http://www.mnisose.org/profiles/chippewa.htm
Cree  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cree
Cree  http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/cree.htm
Cree  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04477a.htm
Cree  http://www.nativeamericans.com/Cree.htm
Cree  http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/cree.html
Cree Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t25
Cree Communities of Quebec  http://www.ottertooth.com/Native_K/jbcree.htm
Cree Culture  http://www.creeculture.ca/e/index.html
Cree Indian Divisions  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/cree/creedivisions.htm
Cree Indian History  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/cree/creehist.htm
Cree Indian on a Hunt  http://www.old-picture.com/indians/Cree-Indian-Hunt.htm
Cree Indian Prophesy  http://www.lifetravellers.net/words/gift20.shtml
Cree Indians  http://www.indians.org/articles/cree-indians.html
Cree Indian Tent  http://www.cd-books.com/new/frank1/Fr1imgs/creetent.html
Cree Indian Tribe and Their Language  http://www.creeindian.com/
Cree Language  http://www.ydli.org/langs/cree.htm
Cree Language  http://www.nisto.com/cree/
Cree Language  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cree_language
Cree Language  http://www.native-languages.org/cree.htm
Cree Language Bibliography  http://www.ydli.org/biblios/creebib.htm
Cree Language Family Tree  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=91163
Cree Nation  http://www.usask.ca/education/ideas/tplan/sslp/creenat.htm
Cree Nation  http://www.crystalinks.com/cree.html
Cree Nation of Eastmain  http://eastmain.zip411.net/en/
Cree Nation of Namaska  http://www.nemaska.ca/
Cree Nation of Wemindji  http://www.wemindji-nation.qc.ca/
Cree Native Bush Life Pictures  http://travel.webshots.com/album/3970221XMJsnHlvbU
Crees of Chisasibi  http://www.mandow.ca/language.htm
Cumberland House Cree Nation  http://chcn.ca/
Driftpile Cree Nation  http://www.driftpilecreenation.com/default.aspx
East Cree Language  http://www.carleton.ca/ecree/en/
East Cree, Northern Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=crl
East Cree, Southern Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=crj
Enoch Cree Nation  http://www.enochecdev.ca/
Ermineskin Cree Nation  http://www.creegallery.com/
Fox Lake Cree Nation  http://www.foxlakecreenation.com/
Lac La Ronge Indian Band  http://www.llrib.ca/education.php
Little Red River Cree Nation  http://lrrcn.ab.ca/profile/index.html
Little Shell Chippewa and Cree History  http://www.littleshelltribe.us/whoweare.shtml
Lubicon Lake Cree Indian Band  http://www.trentu.ca/library/archives/90-011.htm
Lucky Man Cree Nation  http://www.luckyman.ca/
Mocreebec Council of the Cree Nation  http://communities.knet.ca/mocreebec/
Moose Cree First Nation  http://www.moosecree.com/
Moose Cree Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=crm
Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation  http://www.ncncree.com/index.html
Norway House Cree Nation  http://www.nhcn.ca/
Onicikiskwapowin Cree Nation  http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/aboriginalplanet/archives/october2003/art2_intro-en.asp
Opaskwayak Cree Nation  http://www.opaskwayak.mb.ca/
Ouje'-Bougoumou Cree Nation - A Place Where People Gather  http://www.native-languages.org/cree.htm
Pimicikamak Cree Nation  http://www.pimicikamak.ca/
Plains Cree Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=crk
Plains Cree Nation  http://198.161.103.254/nipisihkopahk/
Pukatawagan/Mathias Colomb Cree Nation  http://www.norman-rha.mb.ca/Pukatawagan.htm#
Rocky Boy's Reservation  http://indiannations.visitmt.com/rockyboy.shtm
Rocky Mountain Cree Nation  http://www.aseniwuche.com/
Samson Cree Nation  http://www.samsoncreenation.com/
Saskatchewan Cree History  http://www.sicc.sk.ca/heritage/ethnography/cree/history/
Spirit of Norway House Cree Nation  http://www.spiritofnorwayhouse.com/
Split Lake Cree Nation  http://www.hydro.mb.ca/news/releases/news_00_10_17.shtml
Swampy Cree Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=csw
Treaty No. 5  http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/pr/trts/hti/guid/tr5_e.html
Treaty No. 6  http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/pr/trts/trty6_e.html
Treaty No. 9  James Bay Treaty  http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/pr/trts/trty9_e.html
Waswanipi Cree First Nation  http://www.luckyman.ca/
Woodland Cree Nation  http://www.albertasource.ca/treaty8/eng/Peoples_and_Places/Profiles_of_the_Treaty_Makers/Bands_and_Nations/woodland_cree_bands.html
Woods Cree Nation  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cwd

Last updated 10/31/07 Copyright © 2007 by Four Directions Press