FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE

 

Crow

 

 

Ethnie: CROW (ASBSAROKA, ABSAALOOKE)
Language: Crow
Family: Missouri Valley Siouan
Stock: Siouan Proper
Phylum: Siouan
Macro-Culture: Great Plains
Speakers 4,280   1990 Census
      The Crow were sedentary hunter/farmers until they separated from the Hidatsa in two groups about A.D. 1400 and 1600.  Upon separation, they became nomadic hunter/gatherers of the northern Plains.  In historic times, they ranged from the valley of the Yellowstone in southern Montana south as far as the Laramie fork of the Platte in Wyoming.  They were constantly in conflict with most of their neighbors and severely outnumbered.
      They allied with the United States against their mutual enemies, but were never recognized for their sacrafices.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
The Mountain Crow were in southern Montana and northern Wayoming, the River Crow were among the Hidatsa in North Dakota
Present Locations
MT  Crow Reservation, Crow Agency
Year History *
1400 Oral tradition:  The ancestral tribe of the Crow and the Hidatsa were living the "Land of Forests and many lakes"  ( The present upper Great Lakes of Canada and the United States)
1450 Oral tradition:  Two leaders of this group, No Intestines and Red Scout, fasted at Holy lake (present day Devils Lake, North Dakota),  Red Scout received a vision indicating that his people would survive through the spiritual graces of Sacred Tobacco.  Red Scout and his people settled on the Missouri and learned horticulture from the Mandan, eventually becoming the contemporary Hidatsa's.  No Intestines and his followers traveled on an extensive migration in search of the Sacred Tobacco.  The trek eventually led them to their historic homeland, present-day southeastern Montana and northern Wyoming.  This group became known as the Ashalahó/Many Lodges or the historic Mountain Crow
1490 Oral tradition:  The Mountain Crow were firmly established in their homeland, displacing the Shoshones and allying themselves with the resident Kiowa's
1600 Oral tradition:  The next band of the Crow developed out of a separation from the Hidatsa.  Sometime after No Intestines group had become established on the Plains and argument arose between two factions in the Hidatsa villages on the Missouri River.  The quarrel was over the distribution of a drowned buffalo, the wife of the leader Bad Heart Bear felt that she had not received enough of the tripe.  The ensuing dispute led to a permanent separation when the followers of Bad Heart Bear joined the Ashalahó Apsáalooke on the Plains.  This group became known as the Binnéassiippeele/Those Who Live Amongst The River Banks, or the historic River Crow.
1700 Oral tradition:  The Apsáalooke acquired their first horses from a Shoshone camp near the Great Salt Lake.
1743 A group of Apsáalooke camped at the confluence of the Bighorn and Little Bighorn Rivers meet with the La Vérendrye Brothers, French-Canadian traders, most likely the first encounter between the Apsáalooke and the Europeans
1805 Lewis and Clark Expedition travels across Apsáalooke territory
1805 On their return trip in 1806, the horses meant for Clark, being held by his sergeant, Nathaniel Pryor, are taken by Crow warriors 
1824 Beginning of mountain man fur trade era
1825 The first treaty between the Crow and the United States is signed by Crow leader Long Hair and Major O'Fallon of the United States.  The other prominent Crow leader Rotten Belly refused to sign
1830 Female warrior Pine Leaf killed four Blackfeet at Fort Union and was named Woman Chief by Rotten Belly
1833 Killed more than 200 Cheyenne in revenge battle; contracted smallpox from a wagon train
1840 The Crow were afflicted smallpox epidemic, end of mountain man fur trade era
1846 Attacked and virtually destroyed the Small Robes band of Piegan Blackfeet under Chief Rotten Belly
1848 Caught smallpox from Northern Shoshoni tribe
1849 Lost 600 to influenza
1851 The Crow participated in the first Ft. Laramie Treaty signed by Chief Big Robber which stated that the Crow controlled over 33 million acres of land in present-day Montana and Wyoming, caught smallpox from Northern Shoshoni
1853 Indian agent estimated that Crow owned 20 horses per adult male
1856 Woman Chief killed by Gros Ventre
1864 The outnumbered Crow successfully defended themselves against the combined forces of the Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho on East Pryor Creek north of present-day Pryor, Montana, the largest and most dramatic battle to protect eastern Crow lands from the Lakota invasion of the 1860's
1865 The Crow assisted the United States military in protecting travelers on the Bozeman Trail, three forts were established in Crow territory.
1866 Chief Big Robber killed in duel with Northern Shoshoni Chief Washakie in Battle of Crowheart Butte
1868 The Crow participated in the second Ft. Laramie Treaty, and their land holdings were reduced to 8 million acres in present-day Montana
1869 The first government agency is established for the Crow on Hide Scraper Creek (present-day Mission Creek, Montana)
1872 Crow land holdings were reduced again and the government agency is moved to present-day Absarokee, Montana
1876 The Crow continued to support the United States military by supplying the scouts to the columns of the Centennial Campaign
1877 The Crow repelled constant attacks against the invading Lakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho, with and without the assistance of the United States military, even pursuing the fleeing Lakota's into Canada
1882 The Crow agreed to another land cession and the government agency is moved to its present site at Crow Agency, Montana
1887 Aided Nez Perce in flight to Canada
1950 Water rights to Yellowtail Dam lost by tribe
1983 Crows win inherent sovereignty case in Supreme Court
Year Total MT Population Source
1700 0 NAHDB calculation
1780 4,000 Mooney estimate
1800 3,500 NAHDB calculation
1804 3,500 Lewis and Clark
1890 2,287 Census
1900 2,000 NAHDB calculation 
1904 1,826 Census
1910 1,799 Census
1923 1,777 US Indian Office
1930 1,674 Census
1937 2,173 US Indian Office
1973 4,334 BIA
1981 4,969 BIA
1989 6,226 BIA estimate
1996 10,603 IHS
1999 9,840   BIA
2000 10,000 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Hidatsa
Crow Sites:
About Crow Indian Horses  http://www.bbhc.org/pointsWest/PWArticle.cfm?ArticleID=11
Apsaalooke Chiefs  http://lib.lbhc.cc.mt.us/about/history/crowchiefs.htm
Apsaalooke:  Expressions of the Crow People  http://www.ywhc.org/aithp/index.php?topgroupid=&subgroupid=20&groupid=20
Apsaalooke Nation  http://www.crownations.net/
Apsaroke  http://www.curtis-collection.com/tribe%20data/asperoke.html
Apsaroke (Crow)  http://www.artengine.ca/ghost_dancing/frames/apsaroke.html
Apsaroke Photos  http://members.liwest.at/reno/awtapsar.htm
Beckwourth, James Pierson Grave  http://www.findagrave.com/php/famous.php?page=cem&FScemeteryid=1985784
Beckwourth's Life withthe Crow  http://www.beckwourth.org/Biography/crow.html
Big Horn Canyon National Recreation Area  http://www.hcn.org/servlets/hcn.Article?article_id=5272
Cradleboards, Dolls, and Stories  http://www.art.state.mt.us/folklife/folklife_best.asp
Crow  http://montanakids.com/db_engine/presentations/presentation.asp?pid=174&sub=Tribal+Histories
Crow  http://www.nativeamericans.com/Crow.htm
Crow  http://indiannations.visitmt.com/crow.shtm
Crow Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t27
Crow Bibliography  http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/3807/features/crow.html
Crow Country Curly Horses  http://www.curlyhorses.com/
Crow Fair and Rodeo  http://indiannations.visitmt.com/categories/moreinfo.asp?IDRRecordID=8832&SiteID=90
Crow Flag  http://users.aol.com/donh523/navapage/crow.htm
Crow Girls Winning Science Project  http://www.turtletrack.org/Issues02/Co08242002/CO_08242002_Straw_Houses.htm
Crowheart Battle of 1866  http://www.windrivercountry.com/windriverres/crowheartbuttebattle.html
Crow History  http://lib.lbhc.cc.mt.us/old_site_backup/newpage5.htm
Crow Indian Photographer  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3951/is_199907/ai_n8873720
Crow Indian Reservation  http://www.brookmanstamps.com/Netcat/Indians/Crow.htm
Crow Indians  http://www.crystalinks.com/crow.htm
Crow Indians and the Bozeman Trail  http://www.his.state.mt.us/education/cirguides/transrzeczkowski.asp
Crow Indian Tribe  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/crow/crowhist.htm
Crow - Lewis and Clark  http://www.nationalgeographic.com/lewisandclark/record_tribes_002_19_21.html
Crow - Lewis and Clark Journals  http://lewisandclarkjournals.unl.edu/images_Crow.html
Crow Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=CRO
Crow Language  http://www.native-languages.org/crow.htm
Crow Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=CRO
Crow Nation  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crow_Nation
Crow Photos by Curtis  http://www.curtis-collection.com/tribe%20data/VINTAGE%20PORTFOLIO%20PRINTS/volume4a.html
Crow Reservation and Coalbed Methane  http://serc.carleton.edu/research_education/nativelands/crow/index.html
Crow Reservation Attractions  http://www.forevermontana.com/attractions.htm
Crow Tribal Constitution  http://www.tribalresourcecenter.org/ccfolder/crow_const.htm
Crow Tribal Governing Documents  http://lib.lbhc.cc.mt.us/old_site_backup/crow.htm
Crow Tribe  http://www.omaha.lib.ne.us/transmiss/congress/crow.html
Crow Tribe  http://www.mahalo.com/Crow_Tribe
Crow Tribe Community Profile  http://www.mnisose.org/profiles/crow.htm
Curley,  Gen. Custer ScouFOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE http://www.allposters.com/-sp/Curley-Crow-Indian-General-Custer-s-Scout-Posters_i892470_.htm
Gas Station Indian Monument  http://www.roadsideamerica.com/sights/sightstory.php?tip_AttrId=%3D12271
Horse Culture of the Crow Indians  http://www.lewis-clark.org/content/content-article.asp?ArticleID=1015
Little Big Horn Battlefield  http://montanakids.com/db_engine/presentations/presentation.asp?pid=348&sub=The+Battle
Montana State Student Compiles Crow Stories  http://www.turtletrack.org/Issues02/Co01122002/CO_01122002_Crow_Stories.htm
Oregon Trail  http://linnhistory.peak.org/1853/1853immore.html
People:  The Crow  http://www.peoplesoftheworld.org/hosted/crow/
Plenty Coups  http://www.plentycoups.org/educate/content/mlanguage.html
Plenty Coups  http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/one/61_09.htm
Rancher, Tribe to Create Horse Sanctuary  http://www.billingsgazette.com/index.php?id=1&display=rednews/2005/03/23/build/local/40-horse-sanctuary.inc
Traditional Crow Health Beliefs ...  http://jhn.sagepub.com/cgi/content/short/10/1/18
Two Whistles  http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/one/61_06.htm
Wolf Talker's Last Ride  http://www.angelfire.com/ca/ponywars/page5.html
Woman Chief of the Crows  http://www.colorq.org/Articles/2003/ahistory.htm
Valley of the Chiefs  http://montana.sierraclub.org/news_crow.html

Last updated 11/02/07 Copyright © 2007 by Four Directions Press