FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE

 

Diegueño

 

Ethnie: DIEGUENO (KUMEYAAY)
Language: Delta-California Yuman
Family: Yuman
Stock: Esselen-Yuman
Phylum: Hokan
Macro-Culture: Southern California
Speakers 97 in U.S.      1990 Census
     The Diegueño were a dialectic group of semi-sedentary hunter/gatherer bands. Their territory covered approximately southern San Diego County extending into Baja California. They took an aggressive posture toward the Spanish and their missions. This reduced somewhat the early negative effect of the White influx.  (Populations and locations in Mexico are not included in this analysis)
Aboriginal Locations
Aha-hakaik, Ahta, Ahwat, Amai'-tu, Amat-kwa'-ahwat, Amotanebuwe, Anyaha, Awaskai, Ekwainak, Emitl-kwatai, Ewaiapaip, Guyapipe, Hakam, Hamacha, Hamul, Hanwi, Hapai, Hapawu, Hasasei, Hasumel, Hata'am, Hawai, Hawi, Ilokwi, Inmasi, Inyahkai, Kamachal, Kohwat, Kokwiltl, Kosmit, Kosoi, Kwalhwut, Kwatai, Maktati, Maramoido, Matamo, Mat-ahwat-is, Meti, Netlmol, Nipawai, Otai, Pauipu, Pauwai, Pokol, Pu-shuyi,  Sekwan, Shana, Sinyau-tehwir, Sinyeweche, Tapanke, Tokakamalai, Wemura, Witlinak
Present Locations
BARONA RESERVATION, Lakeside
CAMPO RESERVATION, Campo
CAPITAN GRANDE RESERVATION, Alpine
CUYAPAIPE RESERVATION, Mount Laguna
INJA-COSMIT RESERVATION, Julian
JAMUL INDIAN VILLAGE, Jamul
LA POSTA RESERVATION, Riverside
MANZANITA RESERVATION, Boulevard
MESA GRANDE RESERVATION, Santa Ysabel
SAN PASQUAL RESERVATION, Valley Center
SANTA YSABEL RESERVATION, Santa Ysabel
SYCUAN RESERVATION, El Cajon
Year History
1542  Cabrillo discovered San Diego Bay
1769  Mission San Diego de Alcala and the Presidio of San Diego established
1776  Attack San Diego Mission, killed 3, including only priest ever killed by California Indians
1821  Some of tribe indentured to feudal Mexican barons
1863  Probably affected by smallpox epidemic
Year Population Source
1700  3,000 NAHDB calculation
1770  3,000 Kroeber estimate
1800  3,000 NAHDB calculation
1828  1,711  San Diego mission records
1856  2,500 ARCIA
1871  1,571 Census
1873  886 Catholic Indian mission archives
1883  731 ARCIA
1895  640 ARCIA
1900  700 NAHDB calculation
1913 901 ARCIA
1925  817 ARCIA
1940  957  ARCIA
1968  1,322 ARCIA
1981  2,083 NAHDB estimate using BIA data
1989  2,079 NAHDB estimate using BIA data
2000  2,500 NAHDB projection
Other speakers of the same language:
Cocopa, Halykwami, Kamia, Kohuana
Diegueño links:
A 2,000 Year Old Milling Tool Kit ... San Diego  http://www.pcas.org/Vol32N4/324Kyl.pdf
Barona Band of Mission Indians  http://www.baronatribe.org/
Barona Casino  http://www.barona.com/
Barona Cultural Center and Museum  http://www.baronamuseum.org/feature.html
Barona Reservation  http://www.csusm.edu/bbiggs/loc/rezinfo/barona/index.htm
Campo History  http://www.sdrm.org/history/campo.html
Campo Kumeyaay Nation  http://www.campo-nsn.gov/
Campo Reservation  http://www.csusm.edu/bbiggs/loc/rezinfo/campo/index.htm
Coyote Meets Stink Bug - Kumeyaay Story  http://historyandculture.com/writings/stinkbug.html
Creation  http://www.indigobridgecooperative.com/Shared%20Pages/Myths%20and%20Sacred%20Texts/Native%20American%20Myths/Digueno/Creation.html
Culture and Ethnobotany  http://www.fourdir.com/southern_california_culture.htm
Cuyamaca Rancho State Park Archeological Survey  http://www.palomar.edu/archaeology/Cuyamaca2004Photos/cuyamaca_2000.htm
Diegueno Authors  http://www4.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t28
Diegueno Creation Myth  http://www.dreamscape.com/morgana/ariel.htm#DIGUENO
Diegueno Indians  http://www.sbsd.k12.ca.us/~lwolf/digueno.html
Diegueno Indian Tribe  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/california/dieguenoindianhist.htm
Dieguenos  http://www.curtis-collection.com/tribe%20data/dieguenos.html
Delta-California Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=DIH
Delta-California Yuman Linguistic Lineage 
Desert Band - Kwaymii Culture  http://www.he.net/~novel/kwaaymii.html
Ewiiaapaayp Tribe  http://leaningrock.org/government.shtml
Group of Diegueno Men  http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/kt4j49n74b/
Inaja-Cosmit Reservation  http://www.csusm.edu/bbiggs/loc/rezinfo/inajacosmit/inajacosmit.htm
Manuel Hatam  http://www.americanindiansource.com/hatamkumeyaayhist2.html
Mesa Grande Reservation  http://www.csusm.edu/bbiggs/loc/rezinfo/mesagrande/index.htm
Indian Reservations in San Diego County    http://www.acusd.edu/nativeamerican/reservations.html
Jamul Indian Village  http://www.csusm.edu/bbiggs/loc/rezinfo/jamul/
Jamul Indian Village  http://www.jamulindianvillage.com/
Journal of San Diego County History   http://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/97summer/missionrevolt.htm
A Kid's Guide to the Kumeyaay  http://powayusd.sdcoe.k12.ca.us/projects/kumeyaay/
Kumeyaay   http://www.desertusa.com/mag99/july/papr/kumeyaay.html
Kumeyaay  http://daphne.palomar.edu/cuyamaca/kumeyaay.htm
Kumeyaay  http://www.everyculture.com/North-America/Kumeyaay.html
Kumeyaay  http://www.angelfire.com/falcon/kumeyaay/links.html
Kumeyaay Basketmakers  http://daphne.palomar.edu/ddozier/Bajenos/kumeyaay_basketmakers.htm
Kumeyaay Bird Songs  http://www.singbird.com/
Kumeyaay (Diegueno)  http://www.californiahistory.net/2_natives/kumeyaay.htm
Kumeyaay:  First European Images  http://www.californiahistory.net/3_PAGES/alta_firstimages.htm
Kumeyaay History  http://www.kumeyaay.info/
Kumeyaay History  http://www.eusd4kids.org/mission_trail/SanDiego/SDnatives.html
Kumeyaay Houses  http://www.sandiegohistory.org/education/serra/shelter.htm
Kumeyaay Indian Language  http://www.kumeyaay.org/
Kumeyaay Indian Language and Culture  http://www.kumeyaaylanguage.com/
Kumeyaay Indians  http://projects.edtech.sandi.net/pershing/kumeyaay/
Kumeyaay Indians  http://kumeyaay.sandi.net/Kumeyaay.Indian.Infor/Kumeyaay.Indians.html
Kumeyaay Indians  http://www.kumeyaay.info/kumeyaay_indians.html
Kumeyaay Indian Pottery  http://digilander.iol.it/carlafm/turisti/sandiego/pagine/16indians.htm
Kumeyaay Interpretive Center  http://www.angelfire.com/falcon/kumeyaay/
Kumeyaay Language  http://www.native-languages.org/kumiai.htm
Kumeyaay Language  http://www.kumeyaay.org/firstpage.htm
Kumeyaay Lifestyle  http://www.kn.pacbell.com/wired/kumeyaay/lifestyl.htm
Kumeyaay Lifestyle and Mount Signal  http://home.att.net/~amcimages/kumeyaay.html
Kumeyaay Millennium  http://www.sandiegometro.com/2000/jan/kumeyaay.html
Kumeyaay Nation  http://www.kumeyaay.com/
Kumeyaay Nation  http://www.tribalmall.com/Kumeyaay/
Kumeyaay Nation  http://pagebang.com/cgi/nph-proxy.cgi/111011A/http/www.kumeyaay.com/news/
Kumeyaay Pictographs on Indian Hill  http://www.petroglyphs.us/photographs_pictographs_anza_borrego_IH.htm
Kumeyaay Pottery  http://www.clayhound.us/sites/kumeyaay.htm
Kumeyaay Religion and Expressive Culture  http://www.everyculture.com/North-America/Kumeyaay-Religion-and-Expressive-Culture.html
Kumeyaay Research  http://www.janetwellington.com/kumeyaay2.htm
Kumeyaay Singing  http://www.actaonline.org/artists_cultural_heritage/sound%20traditions/cuero.htm
Kumeyaay, Story in  http://www.kumeyaay.org/story_in_kumeyaay.htm
Kumeyaay, Story of the  http://projects.edtech.sandi.net/chavez/kumeyaay/
Kumeyaay Supermarket:  Native Plant Uses  http://www.nps.gov/cabr/forteachers/upload/Kumeyaay%20Supermarket.pdf
Kumiai Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=DIH
Kumiai Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=DIH
Kumeyaay Tribe - Geneology  http://www.kindredtrails.com/NATIVE_Kumeyaay.html
Kwaaymii Culture  http://he.net/~novel/kwaaymii.html
La Posta Band of Mission Indians  http://www.laposta-nsn.gov/
La Posta Reservation  http://www.csusm.edu/bbiggs/loc/rezinfo/laposta/index.htm
Manzanita Reservation  http://www.csusm.edu/bbiggs/loc/rezinfo/manzanita/index.htm
Mission Basilica San Diego del Alcala  http://www.missionsandiego.com/
Mission San Luis Rey de Francia  http://www.californiamissions.com/cahistory/sanluisrey.html
Musical Culture of the Diegueno Indians ...  http://cfmb.icaap.org/content/24.3/BV24-3art8.pdf
Native American Photographs  http://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html-Pictures/old_photos_pg10.html
Paipai and Kumeyaay  http://www.scerp.org/STEP/paipai.html
Prehistoric Fishing on the San Diego Coast  http://www.pcas.org/Vol34N2/342Noah.pdf
Running Rabbit:  Kumeyaay Folktale  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb140/is_200007/ai_n7840479
San Diego History    http://www.sandiegohistory.org/timeline/timeline.htm
San Diego Reservations    http://www.acusd.edu/nativeamerican/reservations.html
San Pasqual Band of Mission Indians  http://www.sanpasqualindians.org/
San Pasqual Reservation  http://www.csusm.edu/bbiggs/loc/rezinfo/sanpasqual/index.htm
Santa Catarina Pai Pai Kumeyaay Indians  http://www.kumeyaay.info/santa_catarina.html
Santa Ysabel Reservation  http://www.csusm.edu/bbiggs/loc/rezinfo/santaysabel/index.htm
Shawii Kumeyaay Recipe  http://www.sdrp.org/resources/painted/recipe.htm
Shumup Ko Hup Indian Baskets  http://www.howka.com/indian_baskets/
Southern Diegueno Woman  http://www.holtonframes.com/frames/custom/curtis/SoDiegueno.html
Split Rock and Anza Borrego Kumeyaay  http://outdoors.webshots.com/album/29757157UQrcEacBlB
Sycuan Band of the Kumeyaay Nation  http://www.sycuan.com/
Sycuan Casino  http://www.sycuancasino.com/
Sycuan Pow Wow - Kumeyaay Bird Singers  http://www.gballard.net/reels.html?http%3A//www.gballard.net/port/reels/birdsinging.html
Sycuan Reservation  http://www.csusm.edu/bbiggs/loc/rezinfo/sycuan/index.htm
Tapestry  http://www.wowwomen.com/tapestry/arch_rambles/barona.html
Tecolote Cultural Center  http://members.tripod.com/linda_vista/kumeyaay/kumeyaay99.htm
Torrey Pines State Preserve  http://www.torreypine.org/history/history.html
Valley View Casino, San Pasqual Reservation  http://www.valleyviewcasino.com/AboutUs/sanpasqualBand.aspx?bhcp=1
Viejas Band of Kumeyaay Indians  http://www.viejasbandofkumeyaay.org/
Viejas Casino  http://www.viejas.com/
Whaley House  http://www.viewzone.com/whaleyhouse.html
Yuman - SFSU Narrative  http://bss.sfsu.edu/calstudies/NativeWebPages/yuman.html
Last updated 08/03/07   Copyright © 2007 by Four Directions Press