Rocky Mountain Culture
1.   Nomadic foragers
.  Wandered in small family groups
.  Depended on hardwood digging sticks
.  Spring survival was difficult
2.   Practiced the Bear Dance
3.   At war with many Great Plains tribes and Northwesterm Plateau tribes
4.   Communal
5.   Excellent basketweavers ... no pottery
6.   Lived in poor tipis
7.   Not extensive traders

Mountain Culture languages and tribes:

Phylum / Stock / Family / Language Tribe
Aztec-Tanoan / Kiowan / Kiowa / Kiowan Kiowa
                       / Uto-Aztecan / Numic / Central Numic Northern Shoshone
Aztec-Tanoan / Uto-Aztecan / Numic / Southern Numic Ute
Aztec-Tanoan / Uto-Aztecan / Numic / Western Numic Bannock
Na-Dene / Athapaskan / Apachean / Eastern Apacheam Kiowa Apache
Rocky Mountain Culture Ethnobotany
Common Name Scientific Name Use  
American Agave Agave americana L. Food Used as one of the most important foods.
American Century Plant   Agave americana L. Food Used as an important food
Arrowleaf Balsamroot Balsamorhiza sagittata (Pursh) Nutt. Drink Juice from the stems sucked when thirsty.
    Food Roasted, ground seeds made into flour and used to make mush, ground seed meal and juniper berries used to make a pudding, root pitch chewed as gum, blooming stems peeled and eaten, roasted, ground seeds made into flour and stored for winter use.
Big Sagebrush Artemisia tridentata Nutt. Ceremony Sagebrush used by dancers to pat themselves to be made spiritually clean, curing ceremonies.
    Cordage Bark used to make cordage.
    Food Seeds roasted, ground into flour and eaten with water, gum chewed as gum.
    Clothing Bark used to make cloth and sandals, bark frayed and stuffed into moccasins for added warmth.
    Misc. Wood used for drills, hearths and tinder in the creation of fire by friction, blossoms and leaves used as personal decorations in a spring dance, wood used for tinder in the creation of fire by friction, bark wound about a stick and used as a torch.
Black Hawthorn Crataegus douglasii Lindl. Food Fruit eaten raw or boiled, berries formerly dried and eaten.
Canada Wildrye Elymus canadensis L. Food Seeds gathered for food
Chufa Flatsedge Cyperus esculentus L. Food Roots dried, ground and mixed with other foods, roots eaten raw.
Common Dandelion Taraxacum officinale G.H. Weber ex Wiggers Food Leaves used as food
Common Devilsclaw Proboscidea louisianica (P. Mill.) Thellung Basketry Used as black decorations for baskets.
Common Spikerush Eleocharis palustris (L.) Roemer & J.A. Schultes Food Bulbs used for food, sap eaten.
Conjested Snakelily Dichelostemma capitatum ssp. capitatum Food Fresh roots eaten raw, roots roasted and ground into flour, roots dried and stored.
Cusick's Serviceberry Amelanchier alnifolia var. cusickii (Fern.) C.L. Hitchc. Food Berries eaten fresh, bashed berries formed into cakes, sun dried and eaten as candy, berries eaten dried, mashed berries formed into cakes, sun dried for winter use, boiled and eaten.
Datura or Jimson Weed or Sacred Thornapple Datura wrightii Regel Narcotic Roots used to make a narcotic tea. (Deadly poisonous)
Field Horsetail Equisetum arvense L. Music Plant used for whistles.
Fremont'sa Goosefoot Chenopodium fremontii S. Wats. Food Seeds ground into a meal and eaten.
Fremont's Goosefoot Chenopodium fremontii S. Wats. Food Seeds ground into a meal and eaten.
Gairdner's Yampah Perideridia gairdneri ssp. gairdneri Food Roots used for food
Green Rabbitbush Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus (Hook.) Nutt. Food Roots used as chewing gum.
    Tools Peeled stems used for piercing ears in preparation for wearing earrings.
Golden Currant Ribes aureum Pursh Food Berries used for food
Greenleaf Manzanita Arctostaphylos patula Greene Smoking Fire dried, pulverized leaves smoked with other plants or alone.
Herb Sophia Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl Food Seeds parched, ground and eaten as meal, seeds mixed with snow and eaten as ice cream, seeds stored for winter use.
    Drink Roasted, ground seeds mixed with water and used as a cooling beverage for hot weather.
Indianhemp Apocynum cannabinum L. Cordage Stem fibers twisted and plied into cordage and nets, used as twined weft rows for mats, stem fibers twisted and plied into cordage and nets.
Indian Tea or Mormon Tea Ephedra viridis Coville Drink Leafless needles boiled into a drink, parched, ground seeds used for coffee.
    Medicine Numerous uses.
Kinnikinnick Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Smoking Roasted, dried leaves mixed with tobacco and smoked.
Largeflower Hawksbeard Crepis occidentalis Nutt. Food Leaves eaten raw.
Longstalk Springparsley Cymopterus longipes S. Wats. Food Leaves boiled and eaten
Miner's Lettuce Claytonia perfoliata ssp. perfoliata Food Leaves eaten raw.
Mountain Tastymustardseed Descurainia incana ssp. incana Food Seeds roasted, cooled, ground, mixed with cold water and eaten, seeds stored for winter use.
    Drink Seeds dried, cooked, ground, water added, kneaded, water added to make a fine batter and drunk.
Narrowleaf Gromwell Lithospermum incisum Lehm. Drink Roots used to make tea.
Nevada Onion Allium nevadense S. Wats. Food Whole plant eaten raw.
New Mexico Giant Hyssop Agastache pallidiflora ssp. neomexicana var. neomexicana (Briq.) R.W. Sanders Food Used as one of the most important foods.
Pacific Willow Salix lucida ssp. lasiandra (Benth.) E. Murr Basketry Twigs used to make the withes for the three rod foundation coils of baskets, used as the primary basket material.
Parry's Agave Agave parryi Engelm. Food Used as one of the most important foods.
Peachleaf Willow Salix amygdaloides Anderss. Basketry Used in basketry
    Smoking Roasted, dried leaves mixed with tobacco and smoked.
Redosier Dogwood Cornus sericea ssp. sericea Misc. Wood used for cradle board frames.
Rubber Rabbitbush Ericameria nauseosa ssp. nauseosa var. nauseosa Food Root bark chewed like gum.
    Tools Peeled stems used for piercing ears in preparation for wearing earrings.
Saltmarsh Bulrush Schoenoplectus maritimus (L.) Lye Basketry Roots used as dark brown or black decorations for baskets.
Sascatoon Serviceberry  Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex M. Roemer Food Berries eaten fresh or dried for later use
Skunkbush Sumac Rhus trilobata var. trilobata Food Fruit eaten raw
Sego Lily Calochortus nuttallii Torr. & Gray Food Roots and tubers peeled and eaten roasted or raw, bulbs used for food during the spring, roots dried and eaten or ground and cooked in soup.
Showy Milkweed Asclepias speciosa Torr. Food Dried sap chewed as gum, species used for food.
Silverberry Elaeagnus commutata Bernh. ex Rydb. Food Seeds used for food.
Silver Buffaloberry Shepherdia argentea (Pursh) Nutt. Food Berries used for food
Silverscale Saltbush Atriplex argentea Nutt. Food Seeds parched, ground into a flour and made into mush.
Singleleaf Pinyon Pinus monophylla Torr. & Frém. Food Pinons eaten in the mountains away from home.
Skunkbush Sumac Rhus trilobata Nutt. Basketry Formerly used as withes and splints for baskets.
Skyrocket Gilia Ipomopsis aggregata ssp. aggregata Fastener Whole plant boiled for glue
Small Camas Camassia quamash (Pursh) Greene Food Roots cooked overnight, dried and used for food, dried, ground bulbs made into a pudding.
Small Onion Allium parvum Kellogg Food Bulbs dried and eaten, bulbs dried, ground and cooked in soup.
Smooth Horsetail Equisetum laevigatum A. Braun Toys Used by children to make whidtles
Tapertip Onion Allium acuminatum Hook. Food Onions eaten raw, boiled or baked in a pit, bulbs roasted and used for food, seeded heads placed in hot ashes for a few minutes, seeds extracted and eaten. leaves eaten as a relish.
Tioga Thistle Cirsium tioganum var. tioganum Food Roots eaten raw or roasted.
Twincrest Onion Allium bisceptrum S. Wats. Food Seeded heads placed in hot ashes for a few minutes, seeds extracted and eaten, leaves eaten as a relish.
Utah Serviceberry Amelanchier utahensis Koehne Food Berries eaten fresh, berries crushed, dried and used for food.
Western White Clematis Clematis ligusticifolia Nutt. Cordage Used to make carrying nets for snares, used to make bowstrings.
Wood's Rose Rosa woodsii var. woodsii Food Berries used as food
Yellow Missionbells Fritillaria pudica (Pursh) Spreng. Food Bulbs used as food
BIBLIOGRAPHY
     Castetter, Edward F. 1935 Ethnobiological Studies in the American Southwest I. Uncultivated Native Plants Used as Sources of Food. University of New Mexico Bulletin 4(1):1-44
     Chamberlin, Ralph V. 1909 Some Plant Names of the Ute Indians. American Anthropologist
     Murphey, Edith Van Allen 1990 Indian Uses of Native Plants. Glenwood, Ill. Meyerbooks. Originally published in 1959
     Trenholm, Virginia Cole and Maurine Carley, The Shoshonis, Sentinels of the Rockies, U of Oklahoma P, 1964