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Huron

 

 

Ethnie: HURON
Language: Huron
Family: Northern Iroquoian
Stock: Iroquoian
Phylum: Macro-Siouan
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
      The Huron were a large sedentary hunter/farmer nation comprised of four confederated Huron tribes at the time of Champlain. They occupied the southwestern St. Lawrence valley and all of present southern Ontario from Ottawa south and due west to Georgian Bay except for that territory on Lake Huron occupied by the Tionontati.
      The Huron were nearly destroyed by their relatives, the Iroquois. Some were adopted by their conquerors. Numerous relocations followed for the survivors. During and subsequent to the Beaver Wars with the Iroquois, surviving Huron, Neutrals, Erie, Wenrohronom, and Tionontati confederated into the Wyandot.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
RQ   Araste, Hagonchenda, Hochelaga, Hochelay, Statadin, Stadacona, Starnatan, Tailla, Teguenondahi, Tutonaguay
Present Locations
Confederated into the Wyandot
Year History
1535 Probably encountered by Jacques Cartier at Hochelaga, present site of Montreal
1541 Soon abandoned Hochelaga probably due to conflicts with Iroquois
1570 Huroin Confederacy formed combining four Huron or Laurentian Iroquoian tribes
1608 Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec
1609 Joined Champlain, Montagnais, and Algonkin in attack on Mohawk
1610 Mohawk forced to abandon St. Lawrence Valley
1611 Etienne Brule' wintered with Huron
1614 Signed a formal treaty with the French 
1615 Joined Champlain and Algonkin in attack on Oneida and Onondaga villages; French Franciscan missionaries went into the St. Lawrence Valley; Recollect priest, Father Joseph Le Caron, accompanied Champlain on his visit to the Huron villages
1616 Became middlemen in French fur trading
1623 Le Caron mission failed
1625 Jesuit missionaries arrived in region
1626 Jesuit mission failed
1629 Étienne Brulé had betrayed Champlain by guiding the British to Quebec; Quebec surrendered to a fleet commanded by Sir David Kirke; beginning of Beaver Wars driven by Iroquois
1632 Treaty of St. Germaine-en-Laye returned Quebec to France; Brule' found refuge among the Huron until he was killed and eaten following an argument
1634 Jesuits built their first mission at Ihonatiria
1635 Major epidemics of influenza, measles, and smallpox; considerable conversion to Christianity dividing many communities; Seneca inflicted major defeat on Huron
1637 Jesuit mission moved to the Huron capital of Ossossane
1639 Mission relocated to Ste. Marie; 600 Wenro took refuge with Huron after destruction of their tribe by the Iroquois
1640 Heavily armed Iroquois increased attacks on Huron
1641 Seneca, Cayuga, and Onondaga concentrated attacks on the Huron
1642 Iroquois began attacking Huron canoes delivering furs to Montreal
1644 Iroquois captured three large Huron canoe flotillas
1647 Iroquois destroyed the Arendaronon Huron villages
1648 250-man Huron canoe flotilla fought its way past the Iroquois blockade and reached Quebec; during their absence, Iroquois destroyed the mission-village at St. Joseph and killing the Jesuit priest 
1649 2,000 Mohawk and Seneca destroyed the mission-villages of St. Ignace and St. Louis with hundreds killed and captured and two Jesuit priests tortured to death; main village removed to Christian Island in Georgian Bay raising island population to 6,000; Attignawantan Huron had fled west and took refuge with the Tionontati only to have the Iroquois attack both of them; 1,000 Attignawantan and Tionontati fled north to Macinack Island
1651 Mackinack bands fled to an island in Green Bay with the Ottawa; the Seneca defeated the Neutrals and the Tahontaenrat Huron a few of whom retreated to join the tribes on the island in Green Bay; others who surrendered were adopted by the Seneca; a truce with the Iroquois allowed French Jesuits to establish missions in the Iroquois villages for Huron converts adopted by the Iroquois
1654 Trois Rivieres band moved to Christian Island
1656 Confederated Huron, Neutrals, and Tionontati became known as Wyandot
Year Total Population RQ Source
1600 10,000 10,000 Mooney estimate
1700 300 300 NAHDB calculation
1736 300 Lorette population
1800 350 350 NAHDB calculation
1900 450 450 NAHDB calculation 
1908 466 Tolstaga
1994 2,650 Quebec
2000 3,000 3,000 NAHDB calculation 
Other speakers of the same language:
Erie,, Neutrals, Wenro
Huron Sites:
Christian Island History  http://collections.ic.gc.ca/simcoeregion/community/beausoleil/
Huron  http://www.lordnelsons.com/gallery/frontier/wright/06.htm
Huron  http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/huron.html
Huron  http://www.nativeamericans.com/Huron.htm
Huron Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t164
Huron Carol  http://www.rivernen.ca/legend_6.htm
Huron Creation Story  http://web.telia.com/~u15508742/huron.htm
Huron History  http://www.tolatsga.org/hur.html
Huron Indians  http://caca.essortment.com/huronindians_rjru.htm
Huron Indians  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07565a.htm
Huron Indians (Fourth Grade Lesson Plan)  http://ted.coe.wayne.edu/sse/units/HuronIndians.htm
Huron Indian Tribe History  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/huron/huronhist.htm
Huron Moose Hair Decorated Moccasins  http://www.brantmackleygallery.com/moccasins.htm
Huron Museum & Huron Oendat Village, Midland, ON  http://www.huroniamuseum.com/
Hurons ... Allied to the French  http://www.mohicanpress.com/mo08016.html
Hurons/Wyandot/Wendat  http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/hurons.htm
Huron-Wendat  http://www.horizonzero.ca/textsite/tell.php?is=17&file=10&tlang=0
Huron/Wendat Confederacy  http://www.mongabay.com/indigenous_ethnicities/north_american/Huron_Wendat_Confederacy.html
Huron-Wendat Language  http://ossossane.org/langue.html
Huron-Wendat Nation  http://www.telegraphe.com/wendake/indexen.html
Huron Wendat Nation  http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/200/301/ic/can_digital_collections/governor/heraldry/HuronWendatNation.html
Huron-Wendats  http://www.autochtones.gouv.qc.ca/relations_autochtones/profils_nations/hurons-wendats_en.htm
Joseph the Huron  http://upword.dns2go.com/joseph/epilogue.htm
Legend of Louis Durand  http://www.uwgb.edu/wisfrench/family/history/ldurand.htm
Lorette  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09360a.htm
Narquette, Father Jacques  http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/life_in_canada/85169
Marquette Mission Site  http://www.ssc.msu.edu/~anp/marquettemission/Huron_Ottawa.html
Oendat (Huron) Legend of Kitchikewana  http://www.cqsb.qc.ca/svs/434/fnkitchi.htm
Sainte-Marie Among the Huron  http://www.saintemarieamongthehurons.on.ca/english/index.htm
Sagard  http://www.collectionscanada.ca/passages/h8-254-e.html
Smallpox and the End of the Huron Nation  http://www3.sympatico.ca/goweezer/canada/z16huron1.htm
St. Anthony Daniel  http://www.hwcdsb.edu.on.ca/canmartyrs/daniel_page.htm
St. Isaac Jogues  http://www.stisaac.org/isaacarticles.htm
St. John de Brebeuf  http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintj52.htm
Who Really Sported the First Mohawk?  http://www.turtletrack.org/Issues01/Co06302001/CO_06302001_Mohawk.htm
Wendat (Huron) at Contact  http://www.innisfil.library.on.ca/natives/natives/chp2.htm
Wyandot Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t114
Wyandot/Huron Language  http://www.native-languages.org/wyandot.htm
Wyandot Nation of Kansas  http://www.wyandot.org/
Wyandotte Nation of Oklahoma  http://www.wyandotte-nation.org/index.html

Last updated 09/10/05  Copyright © 2005 by Four Directions Press