FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE

 

Illinois

 

 

Ethnie: ILLINOIS (ILLINI, ILLINIWEK)
Dialect: Peoria
Language: Miami-Illinois
Family: Central Algonquian
Stock: Algonquian
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
Speakers Language extinct
      The Illinois were a sedentary hunter/farmer confederacy of the great Mound Builder Culture which separated late from the Miami.  They lived along the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers and as far south as northeastern Arkansas.  They fought with most of their neighbors and were ultimately destroyed in 1769 by a large joint force of their enemies.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
AR    Michigamea
IL      Cahokia, Kaskaskia, Tamaroa
IA      Moingwena, Peoria
MO    Tamaroa
Present Locations
OK  Peoria Indian Tribe, Miami
Year History
1634 Battle with Winnebago
1650 Beaver Wars with Iroquois and then later wars with the Fox
1667 Met French priest Allouez at La Pointe
1673 Visited by Marquette
1682 Visited by LaSalle, at war with neighbors and Iroquois
1700 Soon consolidated in Illinois
1725 Chief Mamantouensa traveled to France
1769 Ottawa chief Pontiac murdered by Kaskaskia Indian, retaliation by joint force of Fox, Sac, Chippewa, Potawatomi, Ottawa, and Kickapoo; lost almost all of territory
1802 Kaskaskia took heavy losses in war with Shawnee
1832 Removed to Kansas
1867 Moved to northeastern Oklahoma
Year Total Population AR IA IL MO OK Source
1650 8,000 Mooney estimate
1680 6,300 Hennipen estimate
1700 5,000 1,100 800 3,000 400 NAHDB calculation
1750 2,000 Swanton
1778 380 Swanton
1800 300 Swanton
1800 300 300 NAHDB calculation
1885 149 Swanton
1900 200 200 NAHDB calculation 
1905 195 Swanton
1910 128 Census
1989 424 BIA estimate
1990 1,600 Factmonster
2000 2,000 2,000 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Miami
Illinois Sites:
Ancient Cahokia  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/daily/march/12/cahokia.htm
Ancient Illinois Village ...  http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2002-09/uoia-aiv090202.php
Archeology of Illinois  http://www.anthro.uiuc.edu/faculty/cfennell/syllabus/anth157/notes84.html
Buffalo Run Casino  http://www.buffalorun.com/
Cahokia  http://www.answers.com/topic/cahokia
Cahokia Indian Tribe History  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/illinois/cahokiaindiantribe.htm
Cahokia Mounds  http://www.swi-news.com/SWI-Cahokia.htm
Cahokia Mounds  http://www.prairieghosts.com/cahokia.html
Cahokia Mounds  http://lewisandclarktrail.com/section1/illinoiscities/mounds.htm
Cahokia Mounds:  Largest Archeological Site in America  http://www.legendsofamerica.com/IL-Cahokia.html
Cahokia Mounds SHP  http://360geographics.com/Central/Illinois/Central/CahokiaMoundsSHP.html
Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site  http://www.cahokiamounds.com/cahokia.html
Cahokia Thatched Hut  http://www.fotosearch.com/UNU118/u16208859/
DeSoto's Midwest Trails  http://www.floridahistory.com/illinois.html
French Explore Peoria Tribe Territory  http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/The-Midwest/Peoria-History.html
French in Illinois  http://www.rootsweb.com/~ilcoles/french.htm
Illini Confederacy  http://www.usgennet.org/usa/mo/county/stlouis/native/1stcontact.htm
Illini Confederation:  Lords of the Mississippi Valley  http://members.tripod.com/~RFester/
Illini Decline  http://members.tripod.com/~RFester/treat.html
Illiniwek of Southern Illinois  http://www.schools.lth5.k12.il.us/bths-east/illiniwek.html
Illinois  http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/illinois.html
Illinois  http://www.nativeamericans.com/IllinoisTribe.htm
Illinois  http://www.prairienet.org/prairienations/illini.htm
Illinois  http://www.museum.state.il.us/muslink/nat_amer/post/htmls/il.html
Illinois Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t165
Illinois Confederacy  http://www.rootsweb.com/~itquapaw/illinois/illinois.html
Illinois History  http://www.tolatsga.org/ill.html
Illinois Indian History  http://www.museum.state.il.us/muslink/nat_amer/post/htmls/popups/timeline.html
Illinois Indians  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07660a.htm
Illinois Indians  http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/illini_kids.htm
Illinois Indian Tribe History  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/illinois/illinoishist.htm
Illinois Indian Tribes  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/illinois/
Illinois-Miami Language  http://www.native-languages.org/miami-illinois.htm
Illinois Today  http://www.museum.state.il.us/muslink/nat_amer/post/htmls/hi_today.html
Indian Mounds Mystify Excavators  http://www.wired.com/news/roadtrip/riverroad/0,2704,65170,00.html
Indian Treaty Boundary Lines of Illinois  http://www.isgs.uiuc.edu/nsdihome/outmeta/indianlns.html
Kaskaskia Indians  http://www.randolphcountyillinois.net/sub2.htm
Kaskaskia Indians  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08608b.htm
Kaskaskia Indian Tribe History  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/miami/kaskaskiaindians.htm
Kaskaskia Treaty  http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/kas0067.htm
Kaskaskia Tribal Descendents  http://www.angelfire.com/la3/kaskaskia/
Legend of the Piasa  http://www.indians.org/welker/piasa.htm
Lost City of Cahokia  http://www.neh.gov/news/humanities/2004-09/cahokia.html
Miami-Illinois Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mia
Miami-Illinois Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=mia
Michigamea  http://spot.colorado.edu/~koontz/michigamea.htm
Michigamea Indian Tribe  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/illinois/michigameaindianhist.htm
Old Kaskaskia Days and Ways  http://riverweb.cet.uiuc.edu/Archives/transactions/1905/Old_20Kaskaskia.html
Peoria  http://www.nativeamericans.com/Peoria.htm
Peoria Indians  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11662a.htm
Peoria Indian Tribe History  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/illinois/peoriahist.htm
Peoria Treaty  http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/peo0165.htm
Peoria Treaty  http://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html-Treaties/TreatyWithThePeoriaetc1818.html
Peoria Tribe  http://www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/ok/nations/peoria/
Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma  http://www.peoriatribe.com/
Peoria Tribe v. United States  http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?navby=search&friend=nytimes&court=US&case=/us/390/468.html
Prairie Nations  http://www.prairienet.org/prairienations/index.htm
St. Louis Indian History  http://www.usgennet.org/usa/mo/county/stlouis/native/am-indian.htm
Treaty with the Kaskaskia 1803  http://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html-Treaties/TreatyWithTheKaskaskia1803.html
Waterman Site  http://www.museum.state.il.us/muslink/nat_amer/post/htmls/arch_water.html

Last updated 04/04/08  Copyright 2008 by Four Directions Press