FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE

Inuit

 

 

Ethnie: INUIT
Languages (Speakers): Eastern Canadian Inuktitut (14,000), Western Canadian Inuktitut (4,000)
Family: Eskimo
Stock: Eskimo-Aleut
Phylum: Eskimo-Aleut
Macro-Culture: Alaska

 

 

 

 

       The Eskimo and Inuit were and are a loose confederation of family groups ranging from Siberia to Greenland. They crossed into North America from Siberia about 3,000 BC.  They were, for the most part, arctic maritime hunters. They experienced minimal White contact due to their sparsely populated vast arctic territory.
Subdivisions (# of Groups)
AK Eskimo (31)
GL Greenland Eskimo (32)
NF Labrador Inuit (14)
NT Central Inuit (30)
PQ Central Inuit (12)
SI Siberia Eskimo (?)
Present Locations
NT Aklavik NF Hopedale
  Arctic Bay   Makkovik
  Baker Lake   Nain
  Bathurst Inlet   Rigolet
  Broughton Island    
  Cambridge Bay PQ Akulivik
  Cape Dorset   Aupaluk
  Chesterfield Inlet   Inukjuak
  Coppermine   Ivujivik
  Coral Harbour   Kangiqsualujjuaq
  Gjoa Haven   Kangiqsujuaq
  Grise Fiord   Kangirsuk
  Hall Beach   Kuujjuak
  Holman   Kuujjuarapik
  Igloolik   Puvirnitug
  Inuvik   Salluit
  Iqaluit   Tasiujaq
  Lake Harbour   Whapmagoostui
  Nanisivik    
  Pangnirtung    
  Paulatuk    
  Pelly Bay     
  Pond Inlet    
  Rankin Inlet    
  Repulse Bay    
  Resolute Bay    
  Sachs Harbour    
  Sanikiluaq, Belcher Islands    
  Spence Bay    
  Tuktoyaktuk    
  Whale Cove    
Year History
4000 B.P. Pre-Dorset migration  from Asia through Alaska into Canada
2800 B.P. Dorset culture replaced Pre-Dorset
  900 Whaling Thule culture settled (900 to 1300) from Alaska to Greenland displacing Dorset culture
1000 First encountered by Norse settlers in Greenland
1576 Discovered by Frobisher in search for northwest passage
17XX Danes resettled Greenland; Russia and western Eskimo opened relations; Labrador Inuits missionized by Moravians
1750 Present Inuit and Eskimo cultures replaced Thule culture which was destroyed by "little ice age"
1795 Central Eskimos met by Hearne overland from the south
1871 US purchased Alaska, Hudson Bay Company began establishing posts
1914 Stafansson explorations
1922 Jenness explorations
1950 Big Diomedes Island (USSR) Eskimos removed to mainland by Soviet government
1975 James Bay Agreement for hydro-electric development
1982 Inuit Broadcasting Corporation created
1992 Canadian Territory of Nunavut conceived primarily for the Eskimauan peoples comprising much of the Northwest Territories.
Year Population NF NT PQ   Source
1700 37,000 3,000 24,000 10,000   NAHDB calculation
1700 37,000         Swanton
1800 37,000 3,000 24,000 10,000   NAHDB calculation
1900 36,000 3,000 23,000 10,000   NAHDB calculation
1922 35,000         Jeness estimate
1981           BIA
2000           NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
None
Inuit Sites
Arctic Bay  http://www.qikiqtani.nu.ca/english/communications-community-profiles-arctic-bay.html
Arviat Inuit Art  http://www.arviathotel.com/arviat-inuit-art.htm
Broughton Island  http://www.bivouac.com/ArxPg.asp?ArxId=1112
Cambridge Bay Inuit Art  http://www.cambridgebayhotel.com/cambridge-bay-inuit-art.htm
Canadian Inuit History  http://www.civilization.ca/educat/oracle/modules/dmorrison/page01_e.html
Chesterfield Inlet  http://www.kivalliq.org/eng/chester.html
Chesterfield Inlet Catholic Mission  http://www.arcticomi.ca/turquetil.html
Clyde River  http://ilm.gospelcom.net/reserves/nwt/pro_nt10.php
Clyde River  http://www.qikiqtani.nu.ca/english/communications-community-profiles-clyde-river.html
Clyde River, Nunavut  http://atlas.gc.ca/site/english/learningresources/facts/nunavut_communities/clyder.html
Coppermine River  http://www.blackfeather.com/canoe/canoe_coppermine.htm
Coral Harbour Catholic Mission  http://www.arcticomi.ca/2coral.html
Coral Harbour Inuit Artists  http://www.coralharbourhotel.com/coral-harbour-inuit-artists.htm
Coral Harbour, Nunavut  http://www.kivalliq.org/eng/coral.html
Drum Dancing Story  http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/inuitdrumdance.htm
Eastern Canadian Inuktitut  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ike
Eskimo-Aleut Language Family Tree  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=91177
Eskimo Inuit Art  http://www.freespiritgallery.ca/
Gjoa Haven Catholic Mission  http://www.arcticomi.ca/2gjoa.html
Gjoa Haven Inuit Art  http://www.gjoahaven.com/gjoa-haven-inuit-art.htm
Grise Fiord  http://www.qikiqtani.nu.ca/english/communications-community-profiles-grise-fiord.html
Grise Fiord Pictures  http://www.arcticcircle.ca/Baffin/Grise/
Hall Beach Catholic Mission  http://www.arcticomi.ca/2hall.html
Hall Beach, Nunavut  http://www.explorenorth.com/library/communities/canada/nunavut/hallbe.html
History of the Nunavut Inuit  http://www.kstrom.net/isk/canada/images/can_arct.htm
Hopedale  http://www.ourlabrador.ca/member.php?id=4
Hopedale  http://www.wright-photo.com/hopedale1.htm
Hopedale  http://home.thezone.net/~nanuk/webdoc3.htm
ICC Language Commission  http://www.inuit.org/index.asp?lang=eng&num=207
Igloolik  http://www.qikiqtani.nu.ca/english/communications-community-profiles-igloolik.html
Igloolik Catholic Mission  http://www.arcticomi.ca/2igloolik.html
Inuit  http://www.athropolis.com/links/inuit.htm
Inuit ...  http://www.houston-north-gallery.ns.ca/inuit_indians.htm
Inuit and Arctic Peoples  http://www.kstrom.net/isk/canada/images/can_arct.htm
Inuit Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t167
Inuit Broadcasting Corporation  http://inuit.iquebec.com/pages/3c.htm
Inuit History  http://teacher.scholastic.com/researchtools/articlearchives/arctic/history.htm
Inuit Nation  http://www.canadopedia.com/first-nations/inuit/
Inuit Native Americans  http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/schools/travilahes/stwork03/writing/Inuit.pdf
Inuit of Quebec  http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/qc/aqc/art/inuits_e.html
Inuit Post-contact History  http://www.heritage.nf.ca/aboriginal/inuit_history.html
Inuit Regions  http://www.itk.ca/5000-year-heritage/regions.php
Inuit Sculpture from Baker Lake  http://www.houston-north-gallery.ns.ca/baker_lake_sculpture_a3828.htm
Inuit Sculpture from Cape Dorset  http://www.houston-north-gallery.ns.ca/inuit_sculpture_ju3083.htm
Inuktitut  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inuktitut
Iqaluit Catholic Mission  http://www.arcticomi.ca/2iqaluit.html
Kugaardjuq School  http://www.polarnet.ca/~pellybay/
Lake Harbour Inuit Musk Ox Carving  http://www.pilarshephard.com/?page=collections&section=inuit&img_no=110
Makkovik Christmas  http://www.hvgb.net/~sedna/christmasmakkovik.html
Nain  http://home.thezone.net/~nanuk/webdoc5.htm
Nanisivik Catholic Mission  http://www.arcticomi.ca/2arcticbay.html
Oonark, Jessie, Artist  http://www.uleth.ca/artgallery/TWAM/vr1/BioOonark.htm
Pangnirtung Inuit Sculpture  http://www.houston-north-gallery.ns.ca/pangnirtung_sculpture.htm
Pelly Bay Catholic Church  http://www.arcticomi.ca/2kugaaruk.html
Pelly Bay Inuit Sculpture  http://www.houston-north-gallery.ns.ca/inuit_sculpture_a1449.htm
Pelly Bay, Nunavut  http://atlas.gc.ca/site/english/learningresources/facts/nunavut_communities/pelbay.html
Pond Inlet  http://www.explorenorth.com/library/communities/canada/nunavut/pondin.html
Pond Inlet Catholic Church  http://www.arcticomi.ca/2pondinlet.html
Pond Inlet Inuit Sculptures  http://www.inuit-art.ca/
Prehistoric Inuit Cultures  http://www.usask.ca/education/ideas/tplan/sslp/pre.htm
Rankin Inlet  http://www.kivalliq.org/eng/rankin.html
Rankin Inlet Catholic Church  http://www.arcticomi.ca/2rankin.html
Repulse Bay  http://www.explorenorth.com/library/communities/canada/nunavut/repuls.html
Repulse Bay  http://www.kivalliq.org/eng/repulse.html
Repulse Bay Art  http://www.repulsebayhotel.com/repulse-bay-inuit-artists.htm
Repulse Bay Catholic Church  http://www.arcticomi.ca/2repulse.html
Resolute Bay  http://www.earth.rochester.edu/pmag/arctic/arctic2000/Arctic2000-5.html
Resolute Bay Igloo  http://www.alaskastock.com/resultsframe.asp?inline=true&image=406AB+AD0001+002&wwwflag=3&imagepos=5
Resolute Bay Inuit Art  http://www.earth.rochester.edu/pmag/arctic/arctic2000/Arctic2000-5.html
Rigolet  http://www.ourlabrador.ca/member.php?id=9
Rigolet  http://project.smartlabrador.ca/home.php?page=68
Sanikiluaq  http://www.mitiq.com/sanikiluaq-nunavut.htm
Sanikiluaq Inuit Carvings  http://www.mitiq.com/sanikiluaq-inuit-artists.htm
Sanikiluaq  Whale Carving  http://www.houston-north-gallery.ns.ca/inuit_sculpture_a3615.htm
Spence Bay  http://www.donmeredith.ca/Arctic/Arctic06.html
Spence Bay Catholic Mission  http://www.arcticomi.ca/2taloyoak.html
Taloyoak Inuit Art  http://www.taloyoak.com/taloyoak-inuit-art.htm
Tuktoyaktuk Pictures  http://travel.yahoo.com/p-travelguide-482072-action-pictures-tuktoyaktuk_vacations-i
Western Canadian Inuktitut  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ikt
Whale Baleen Basket  http://www.simplybaskets.com/Baleen_Basket_Ivory_Whale_Tail.html
Whale Cove  http://www.explorenorth.com/library/communities/canada/nunavut/whale.html
Whale Cove  http://www.kivalliq.org/eng/whale.html
Whale Cove Catholic Mission  http://www.arcticomi.ca/2whale.html
Wild Arctic Musk Ox Harvest ...  http://www.hillsfoods.com/article1.html

Last updated 10/26/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press