Ethnie: KIOWA
Language: Kiowa
Family: Kiowa
Stock: Kiowa-Tanoan
Phylum: Aztec-Tanoan
Macro-Culture: Great Plains
Speakers 1,092   (1990 Census)
      The Kiowa were a nomadic, sometimes predatory, hunter/gatherer tribe.  They lived generally in southern Montana at the head of the Missouri River.  Their traditions indicate they migrated there along with the Kiowa Apache from the north.  They and the Kiowa Apache were driven from their Montana territories probably by the Arapaho about 1700.
      The tribes first settled in the Black Hills about 1775.  Lewis and Clark later found them on the North Platte River in Colorado.  Once they finally migrated to the Southern Plains, they allied with the Comanche (1832) and began to prey on the sedentary tribes and White settlers of that region.  It was then too that they began their annual Sun Dances.  The Kiowa had an extreme hate for Whites.  Subsequent to 1850, the fortunes of the Kiowa and Kiowa Apache followed those of the Comanche.
Aboriginal Locations
MT Subdivisions:  Kata, Kogui, Kaigwu, K'uato, Kingep, Semat
Present Locations
OK  Kiowa Tribe, Anadarko
Year History
1700 Removed from Montana and Wyoming where the tribe was allied with the Crow
1748 Living on upper Platte and Arkansas Rivers, mentioned as enemy of New Mexico
1770 K'uato band massacred and destroyed by Dakota
1775 Had migrated to the Black Hills, thereafter known to visit Hidatsa, Arikara, and Mandan on Missouri River; learned the Sun Dance from the Hidatsa
1785-1805 Driven from Black Hills by Dakota and Cheyenne
1805 Reported by Lewis and Clark as living on the North Platte (Colorado), had war with Comanche over land on the Arkansas River but later made peace and the two tribes joined in raids on frontier settlements in Texas and as far south as Durango, Mexico
1815 Moved further down the Platte to the Colorado/Nebraska border
1829 Moved to "home country", claimed along with Comanche country encompassing present El Reno OK, Wichita KA, Las Animas CO, Clayton NM, and Tascosa TX; began practicing Sun Dance 
1833 Suffered massacre by the Osage
1836 War party of 100 Comanche, Caddo, Kiowa, and Wichita attacked with Fort Parker, probably after having been swindled on a horse deal, killed 5 and captured 5 including 9 year old Cynthia Ann Parker, future mother of Quanah Parker
1837 Treaty with US at Fort Gibson
1839 Smallpox epidemic
1840 Made peace with the Cheyenne and Arapaho
1862 Smallpox epidemic
1864 Kit Carson attacked Kiowa and Comanche at Adobe Walls and destroyed winter stores
1865 Medicine Lodge Treaty set aside reservation fro Kiowa and Comanche including Oklahoma land and all of Texas panhandle, 39 million acres
1867 All of Texas land and part of Oklahoma land in second Medicine Lodge Treaty, retained 2.9 million acres
1871 Comanche and Kiowa attacked a n Army ambulance train killing 10
1872 4th Cavalry killed 30, captured 124 at McClellan Creek, MacKenzie attack at Palo Duro Canyon, killed 8, captured 1,500 horses
1874 Settled on land after the last outbreak of the Southern Plains tribes at Adobe Walls, Red River War
1875 Quanah Parker became chief of the Comanche and Kiowa and became a federal judge
1892 Measles epidemic
1903 Quanah, Acme, and Pacific Railroad founded
Year Total Population CO MT OK Source
1700 2,000 2,000 NAHDB calculation
1780 2,000 Mooney estimate
1800 2,000 2,000 NAHDB calculation
1900 1,200 1,200 NAHDB calculation
1910 1,165 Census
1930 1,050 US Indian Office
1981 4,005 BIA
1989 4,823 BIA estimate
2000 6,000 6,000 NAHDB calculation
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Last updated 11/07/08  Copyright 2008 by Four Directions Press