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Kitanemuk

 

Ethnie: KITANEMUK
Language: Northern Takic
Family: Takic
Stock: Uto-Aztecan
Phylum: Aztec-Tanoan
Macro-Culture: Southern California
Speakers None      
     The Takic peoples arrived in southern California about 2,500 years ago. All were relatively peaceful hunter/gatherer mountain and desert cultures. The Kitanemuk are closely related to the so called Serrano and Gabrielino. They ranged across the east slope of the San Gabriel Mountains from Tejon Pass to the Antelope Valley and into the Mojave Desert. They were active traders.
Aboriginal Locations
Villages of Chivutpa-ve, Honewimats, Mavin, Nakwalkie-ve, and Wuwopraha-ve
Present Locations
Some descendants reside at TULE RIVER RESERVATION, Porterville and Tejon Ranch while others absorbed into the local culture
Year History
1769 Visited by Garcés; Kitanemuk at war with Serrano (Alliklik) having killed their chief
1771 Mission San Gabriel de Arcangel founded
1797 Mission San Fernando Rey Espana founded
1821 Many indentured to Mexican feudal barons
1840 Smallpox epidemic
1917 A few Kitanemuks living at Tejon Ranch, others at Tule River Reservation
Year Population Source
750 Balckburn and Bean aboriginal estimate
1700 750 NAHDB calculation
1800 700 NAHDB calculation
1900 50 NAHDB calculation
2000 50 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Gabrielino, Serrano, Vanyume
Kitanemuk Links
Antelope Valley History  http://www.palmdalelibrary.org/history/part1.shtml
Antelope Valley Indian Peoples:  Late Prehistoric Period  http://www.avim.parks.ca.gov/people/prehistoric.shtml
Antelope Valley Native Peoples  http://www.avim.parks.ca.gov/people/ph_kitanemuk.shtml
Archeological Survey ... Tehachapi East Afterbay ... http://wwwdpla.water.ca.gov/sd/environment/tehachapi/deir/app%20d.pdf
Basket - Dee Dominguez  http://www.ciba.org/ongoing.html
California's Native People:  Desert Interior  http://www.cabrillo.edu/~crsmith/anth6_desert_relig.html
Environmental Setting, Impact, and Mitigation  http://www.lacsd.org/LWRP%202020%20Facilities%20Plan%20DEIR/4_12_Cult_Res.pdf
History of Fort Tejon    http://www.angelfire.com/id/newpubs/forttejon.html
Indians of Mission San Fernando ...  http://vredenburgh.org/tehachapi/data/tejon01.htm
Kitanemuk Hat  http://hearstmuseum.berkeley.edu/exhibitions/ncc/gallery_2_2_3_5.html
Kitanemuk Indians  http://mojavedesert.net/kitanemuk-indians/
Kitanemuk Language  http://www.native-languages.org/kitanemuk.htm
Kitanemuk - SFSU Narrative  http://bss.sfsu.edu/calstudies/NativeWebPages/serrano.html
Kitanemuk Traditional Narratives  http://www.answers.com/topic/kitanemuk-traditional-narratives
Native Languages Slowly Dying  http://www.turtletrack.org/Issues00/Co12162000/CO_12162000_Dyinglanguage.htm
Serrano-Gabrielino Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=SER
Serrano-Gabrielino Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_lang_family.asp?code=SER
Southern California Culture and Ethnobotany  http://www.fourdir.com/southern_california_culture.htm
Trail to Kashtiq  http://www.scvhistory.com/scvhistory/johnson-kashtiq.htm

Last updated 07/20/07  Copyright © 2007 by Four Directions Press