FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE

 

Lakota

 

 

Ethnie: LAKOTA
Dialect: Lakota
Language: Dakota
Family: Central Mississippi Valley Siouan 
Stock: Siouan Proper
Phylum: Siouan
Macro-Culture: Great Plains
      The Sioux were a language group and culture.  Prehistorically, they were apparently a component of the Indian Knoll Culture of the south, removing from that area about 1000 B.C.  They became sedentary hunter/farmers along the Mississippi in southern Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin.  Ultimately, all of the Lakota and some of the Dakota and Nakota were driven out onto the Great Plains by the Chippewa where they became nomadic hunter/gatherers.  This created an eastern woodlands division of the tribe and a prairie division, with the greater part of the population in the latter.
      The Lakota were, for the most part, bellicose and had many enemies, particularly on the plains where they lived in a constant state of war.  They allied with the Cheyenne and Arapaho, and were the most formidable opponents of White expansion.  The Lakota, under leaders like Little Crow, Sitting Bull, Red Cloud, and Crazy Horse handed White expansionists several defeats before the final blow at Wounded Knee in 1890.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
Minnesota and Wisconsin
Present Locations
ND     Standing Rock Reservation, Fort Yates
SD      Cheyenne River Reservation, Eagle Butte
           Crow Creek Reservation, Thompson
           Lower Brule Reservation, Brule
           Pine Ridge Reservation, Pine Ridge
           Rosebud Reservation, Rosebud
Year History
1640 First mentioned in the Jesuit Relation
1765 Some first reached the Black Hills, driven west by Chippewa
1801 Smallpox epidemic
1804 Met by Lewis and Clark
1811 Met Wilson Rice Hunt expedition on the Missouri River, traded
1837 Smallpox epidemic; sold all of their territories east of the Mississippi to U. S.
1848 War with Mandan
1851 First Treaty of Fort Laramie recognized tribes
1853 Received huge amount of corn from Arikara, prevented famine
1854 War over Grattan affair
1855 Gen. Harvey massacred 85, captured 70 women and children
1866 War of Bozeman Trail, Red Cloud's War
1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie established Great Sioux Reservation
1875 Black Hills Gold Rush started war, dispute between Red Cloud and Crazy Horse divided Lakota
1876 Defeated Gen. Custer at Little Big Horn River with help of Cheyenne, Black Hills War under Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
1877 Dull Knife, Lame Deer, and Crazy Horse defeated, Sitting Bull escaped to Canada, Crazy Horse killed in captivity; U. S. government forced takeover of Black Hills
1881 Sitting Bull surrendered
1889 Act of Congress split the Great Sioux Reservation into six smaller reservations
1890 Sitting Bull murdered on the Standing Rock Reservation, following this ... massacre of Big Foot's band killing more than 250 at Wounded Knee by U. S. Army for conducting "illegal" ghost dance
1973 American Indian Movement (AIM) took over Wounded Knee in armed conflict, occupied for 71 days, began three year conflict on Pine Ridge Reservation, 60 of tribe were killed
1976 Pine Ridge goon squads disbanded ending Pine Ridge civil conflicts
1980 Lakota refused $180 million in payment for stolen Black Hills
Year Total Pop. MN ND SD Source
Arrival 25,000 25,000
1700 20,000 20,000 NAHDB calculation
1800 25,000 500 4,500 20,000 NAHDB calculation
1900 15,000 500 4,000 10,500 NAHDB calculation 
1904 15,627 Census
2000 72,000 12,000 60,000 NAHDB calculation
2004 75,663 12,723 62,940 Various
Sioux Sites:
AIM, Pine Ridge, and the FBI  http://www.dickshovel.com/Aim.Pine.html
Akta Lakota Museum  http://www.aktalakota.org/
Badlands:  Human History  http://www.nps.gov/badl/exp/humans.htm
Battle of the Little Big Horn  http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/six/bighorn.htm
Battle of the Little Big Horn, 1876  http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/custer.htm
Big Foot  http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/a_c/bigfoot.htm
Blackfeet Sioux Treaty - 1865  http://www.dlncoalition.org/dln_nation/1865_blackfeet_treaty.htm
Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show  http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/acs/1890s/buffalobill/bbwildwestshow.html
Camping With the Sioux:  ... Alice Cunningham Fletcher  http://www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/fletcher/fletcher.htm
Catlin Sioux Paintings  http://catlinclassroom.si.edu/catlin_browsepagetribe.cfm?StartRow=201
Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation  http://www.brookmanstamps.com/Netcat/Indians/CheyenneRiver.htm
Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe Overview  http://www.aaanativearts.com/article298.html
Chief Sitting Bull  http://www.indigenouspeople.net/sittbull.htm
Collection of Wisdom  http://www.immediex.com/lakota.html
Crazy Horse  http://www.indians.org/welker/crazyhor.htm
Crazy Horse  http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/a_c/crazyhorse.htm
Crazy Horse  http://www.wc.pdx.edu/crazyhorse/crazy.html
Crazy Horse  http://www.emayzine.com/lectures/CRAZYHOR.html
Crazy Horse Family Reconciliation  http://www.dlncoalition.org/dln_issues/reconciliation_with_crazy_horse_family.htm
Crazy Horse Monument  http://www.roadsidephotos.com/sd/sd16.htm
Crazy Horse Poetry:  Sherman Alexie  http://www.washingtonfreepress.org//02/Books.html
Crazy Horse Photo [?]  http://www.friendslittlebighorn.com/crazy-horse-photo.htm
Crow Creek Agency  http://www.sdhistory.org/arc/iap/arc_iap14.htm
Crow Creek Reservation  http://www.aaanativearts.com/article302.html
Dakota/Lakota Singing  http://drumhop.com/
Dakota Lakota Sioux Language  http://www.native-languages.org/dakota.htm
Dakota Language  http://www.alliance2k.org/daklang/dakota9463.htm
Decline and Fall of the Sioux Nation  http://home.tiac.net/~cri/1998/sioux.html
Dreamcatcher Story  http://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html-Legends/Dreamcatcher-Lakota.html
First Nations of Minnesota  http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/history/mncultures/lakota.html
Ghost Dance, Mooney's Illustrations  http://php.indiana.edu/~tkavanag/visualb.html
Great Sioux Nation  http://www.blackhillsbadlands.com/go.asp?ID=102
Great Sioux Nation  http://www.blackhillsbadlands.com/
Interview with Lakota Indian  Video  http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-2480184951762337446
Lakhota Language  http://www.lakhota.com/home.htm
Lakota Astronomy  http://www.kstrom.net/isk/stars/starmenu.html
Lakota Creation Myth  http://www.indianlegend.com/lakota/lakota_001.htm
Lakota Creations Art Gallery  http://www.lakotacreations.com/
Lakota - Culture and Spirituality  http://www.elexion.com/
Lakota Iyapi  http://www.elexion.com/lakota/iyapi/index2.html
Lakota Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lkt
Lakota Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=lkt
Lakota, Nakota, Dakota  http://www.hanksville.org/daniel/lakota/Lakota.html
Lakota ns Dakota Wowapi Oti Kin  http://puffin.creighton.edu/lakota/
Lakota of the Plains  http://www.carnegiemnh.org/exhibits/north-south-east-west/lakota/index.html
Lakota Oglala Tribe of the Pine Ridge Reservation  http://www.ouachitalk.com/takeover.htm
Lakota Reservation 1868  http://ishgooda.org/oglala/1868lnd.htm
Lakota Rites, Ceremonies, and Symbolism  http://www.elexion.com/lakota/rites/main2.html
Lakota (Sioux)  http://www.invitationproject.ca/cgi-win/quilt.exe?LISTING=1180
Lakota Sioux Dancing  Video  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xcPm0S_K6XM&feature=related
Lakota Sioux History  http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Post/497636
Lakota Sioux Indian Village  http://www.old-picture.com/old-west/Village-Indian-Lakota.htm
Lakota Tribes of the Great Plains  http://www.pilotguides.com/destination_guide/north_america/american_rockies/lakota.php
Lakota Voices  Video  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fRaM0whsnxo
Lakota Winter Counts  http://wintercounts.si.edu/
Life on the Rez:  A Young Person's Perspective  Video  http://www.livevideo.com/video/skinnychef/A689AAD0F99B4745861348686A60133A/life-on-the-rez-a-young-perso.aspx
Lower Brule Sioux Tribe Overview  http://www.aaanativearts.com/article306.html
Lower Sioux Mdewakanton Dakota Reservation  http://www.kstrom.net/isk/maps/mn/lowersio.htm
Malakota - I am Lakota  http://www.malakota.com/
Oglala Sioux Tribe  http://www.lakotamall.com/oglalasiouxtribe/
Old Indian Days  http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/EasDays.html
Origin of the Prairie Rose  http://www.bedtime-story.com/bedtime-story/sioux-prairierose.htm
Pine Ridge Life and Conditions  http://www.linkcenterfoundation.org/id24.html
Pine Ridge Reservation  http://www.trailsandgrasslands.org/rez.html
Pine Ridge Reservation  http://www.wmburgweb.com/DigitalScrapbooks/Travel98/PineRidge/pineridge.html
Red Cloud  http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/i_r/redcloud.htm
Red Cloud  http://www.indigenouspeople.net/redcloud.htm
Red Cloud  http://www.custerslaststand.org/source/redcloud.html
Red Cloud  http://www.worldwideschool.org/library/books/hst/northamerican/IndianHeroesGreatChieftains/Chap1.html
Red Cloud  http://www.danielnpaul.com/ChiefRedCloud.html
Red Cloud Indian School  http://redcloudschool.org/
Rosebud Reservation  http://www.pschulze.com/subweb/lwoman/rosebud_reservation.htm
Rosebud Sioux Tribe  http://www.rosebudsiouxtribe-nsn.gov/
Rosebud Sioux Tribe  http://www.rosebudsiouxtribe-nsn.gov/demographics/
Rosebud Sioux Tribe Overview  http://www.pschulze.com/subweb/lwoman/rosebud_reservation.htm
Sioux  http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/sioux.html
Sioux Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t96
Sioux Elders Hold Peaceful Takeover of Tribal Council Building  http://www.ouachitalk.com/takeover.htm
Sioux Indian Bibliography  http://www.usd.edu/library/subject/siouxweb.htm
Sioux Indian Museum  http://www.doi.gov/iacb/museums/museum_sioux.html
Sioux Indians  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14017a.htm
Sioux Language  http://www.omniglot.com/writing/sioux.htm
Sioux Literature  http://www.dickshovel.com/hill.html
Sioux Nation - Lakota, Dakota, Nakota  http://www.montana.edu/wwwfpcc/tribes/
Sioux Tribe  http://www.nativeamericans.com/Sioux.htm
Sitting Bull  http://www.mysteriesofcanada.com/Saskatchewan/sitting_bull.htm
Sitting Bull  http://www.mce.k12tn.net/indians/famous/sitting_bull.htm
Sitting Bull  http://www.powersource.com/gallery/people/sittbull.html
Sitting Bull  http://www.answers.com/topic/sitting-bull
Sitting Bull  http://www.snowwowl.com/nativeleaders/sittingbull.html
Sitting Bull  http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/s_z/sittingbull.htm
Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill  http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/seven/w67i_bullcody.htm
Sitting Bull College  http://www.sittingbull.edu/
Sitting Bull's Death  http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/eight/sbarrest.htm
South Dakota Indian Tribes  http://www.kstrom.net/isk/maps/dakotas/sd.html
Spirit Lake Nation  http://www.spiritlakenation.com/
Standing Rock Reservation  http://www.standingrock.org/
Standing Rock Reservation Horses Part of Tribe's Teaching  http://www.turtletrack.org/Issues03/Co11012003/CO_11012003_Horses.htm
Tatanka Iyotanka  http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Delphi/1088/natives/sitting.htm
Tatanka Yotanka  http://members.tripod.com/~RFester/lakota.html
Treaties  http://puffin.creighton.edu/lakota/index_treaties.html
Unkpapa Sioux Portraits  http://gallery.unl.edu/picinfo/2274.html
Wood Mountain Reserve Profile  http://www.sicc.sk.ca/saskindian/a76nov15.htm
Wounded Knee ...  http://www.dickshovel.com/hill.html
Wounded Knee Massacre  http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/knee.htm
Wounded Knee Massacre  http://www.linecamp.com/museums/americanwest/western_places/wounded_knee_massacre/wounded_knee_massacre.html
Wounded Knee Massacre:  Lakota Accounts  http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/eight/wklakota.htm
Woskate  http://puffin.creighton.edu/lakota/publications/onefeather/woskate.html

Last updated 04/01/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press