Language: Tutelo
Family: Southeastern Siouan
Stock: Siouan Proper
Phylum: Siouan
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
Speakers None
      The Manahoac were a sedentary hunter/farmer confederacy. Their ancestors fissioned from the greater Siouan culture about 1,000 B. C. and crossed the Appalachians into the Carolinas displacing the previous inhabitants. They occupied the northernmost region of Virginia, but relocated often. The ethnie was at war with all of the neighboring non-Siouan tribes. They finally confederated into other Siouan tribes.
Aboriginal Locations: Subdivisions (Villages)
VA    Hassinunga, Manahoac, Ontponea, Shackaconia, Stegaraki, Tanxnitania, Teginateo, Whonkentia
Present Locations
Extinct as a culture
Year History
1608 Located by John Smith on the Potomac River, at war with Iroquois and Powhatan, allied with the Monacan
1654 Had settled on James River, defeated a combined force of Whites and other tribes; soon forced out of area by Susquehanna, settled on upper James River
1700 Located at Fort Christianna
1722 By Treaty of Albany, Iroquois agreed to stop hostilities against Virginia tribes
1723 Last mention of tribe, joined Tutelo and Saponi
Year Total VA Pop. Source
1600 1,500   Mooney estimate
1700 1,000 NAHDB calculation
1800 0 NAHDB calculation
1900 0 NAHDB calculation 
2000 0 NAHDB calculation 
Other speakers of the same language:
Monacan, Moneton, Nahyssan, Saponi, Tutelo
Manahoac Sites:
Manahoac and Monacan Timeline
Manahoac Confederacy of Virginia
Manahoac Indian Tribe
Travels of Captain John Smith
Tutelo Language
Tutelo Language
Tutelo Linguistic Lineage
Virginia Tribes:  Manahoac through Tutelo

Last updated 12/03/08  Copyright 2008 by Four Directions Press