Ethnie: MANDAN
Language: Mandan
Family Central Siouan 
Stock: Siouan
Phylum: Macro-Siouan
Macro-Culture: Great Plains
Speakers                              6 (1992 M. Krauss)  
      The Mandan were a hunter/farmer nation of the Plains River Culture. It is extremely questionable if they have Welch ancestry. They were important allies to Lewis and Clark.   They were all but destroyed by smallpox and by an attempted annihilation by the Assiniboin.  No full bloods remain today thought the language survives.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
ND  Estapa, Horatamumake, Kitanemuke, Matonumake, Neteahke, Seepoosta, Tanatsuka
Present Locations
ND  Fort Berthold Reservation, New Town
Year History
1170 Soon after this year, Welch Prince Madog ab Owain Gwynedd arrived in region after wars with the Cherokee to assimilated into the Mandan [?]
1450 Approximate dated of arrival in North Dakota
1738 Met by Verendye on Heart River who noted tribal members with Caucasian features
1804 Just below Knife River when visited by Lewis and Clark
1837 Tribe all but destroyed by smallpox epidemic
1838 Arikaras took posession of an abandoned Mandan village foiling an Assiniboin scheme to wipe out remaining Mandan
1841 Catlin wrote of Causasian features of Mandan noticed in earlier visit
1845 Began to move to Fort Berthold
1851 Treaty of Ft. Laramie defined land boundaries; territory of Arikara, Mandan, and Hidatsa called Ft. Berthold; territory included parts of Montana, Wyoming, and North and South Dakota 
1891 Executive Orders reduced size of reservation from 13.5 million acres to .9 million acres
1954 Lost 152 thousand acres to Lake Sakakawea; stress caused considerable subsequent movement off of the reservation
Year Total ND Population Source
1700 3,600 NAHDB calculation
1780 3,600 Mooney estimate
1800 1,300 NAHDB calculation
1805 1,250 Lewis and Clark
1837 31 Survivors of smallpox epidemic
1850 150 Swanton
1871 450 Swanton
1877 420 Swanton
1885 410 Swanton
1900 300 NAHDB calculation 
1905 249 Official
1910 209 Census
1923 273 US Indian Office
1930 271 Census
1937 345 US Indian Office
1989 650 BIA estimate
2000 800 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Mandan Sites:
Benson, Edwin (Transcript)
"Coyote Warrior" ...
Curtis Mandan Images,&psec=nai.05,
Dying Tongues
Fort Atkinson
Fort Berthold Reservation
Hidatsa Mandan Arikara Earth Lodge
Knife River Indian Villages NHP
Lewis and Clark, Journey into the Unknown
Lewis and Clark, Native Americans, and the USGS
Mandan/Arikara Photo
Mandan Earthen Lodge
Mandan Elder Seen as Language's Last Hope
Mandan Elder
Mandan Indian
Mandan Indian Ferry
Mandan Indian Nation
Mandan Indians
Mandan Indians
Mandan Indians
Mandan Indians
Mandan Indians
Mandan Indian Shriners
Mandan Indian Village
Mandan Is Not Welsh'
Mandan Language
Mandan Language
Mandan Language
Mandan Linguistic Lineage
Mandan Literature
Mandan Treaty
Mandan Tribe
Mandan Tribe History
MHA Nation
On-A-Slant Indian Village
Sun Dance
Was America Discovered in 1170?
Was America Discovered in 1170 ...
Welsh and Norse Explorers
Welsh Explorers
Where Technology Meets History ...
Winter at Ft. Mandan
Wintering with the Mandan Indian Tribe

Last updated 12/04/08  Copyright 2008 by Four Directions Press