FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE

Modoc

 

Ethnie: MODOC
Language: Klamath-Modoc
Family: Klamath-Modoc
Stock: Plateau Penutian
Phylum: Penutian
Macro-Culture: Transition: Great Basin, Central Valley, Northwest California
Speakers 1   1988
     The Modoc were a hunter/gatherer tribe. They lived on Little Klamath Lake, Modoc Lake, Tule Lake, Clear Lake, Goose Lake, and in the Lost River Valley. The tribe came into contact with Whites at a relatively late period. They had conflicts with the Whites, their closest relatives, the Klamath, and they conducted slaving raids against the Achomawi. They were defeated in the Modoc War at the Lava Beds in California and many were removed to Oklahoma.
Aboriginal Locations
CA Little Klamath Lake, Lost River, Yule Lake (16 villages); OR Lost River (6 villages)
Present Locations
OK MODOC TRIBE, Miami
OR KLAMATH GENERAL COUNCIL, Chiloquin
Year History
1841 Influx of Oregon Trail settlers began, conflicts followed
1864 Ceded lands and retired to Klamath reservation; soon removed due to starvation and tensions with Klamath
1870 Chief Kintpuash (Captain Jack) led militant band back to California
1871 Began practice of Ghost Dance
1872 Attempts to force return to Oregon began Modoc War, Modocs retreated to lava beds for months, finally overrun, Kintpuash and 3 others hanged, 2 sent to Alcatraz, 153 sent to Quapaw Agency in Oklahoma, others to Klamath
1909 Several Oklahoma Modoc allowed to return to Klamath Agency
1954 Oklahoma and Oregon Modoc tribes terminated
1978 Oklahoma Modoc Tribes reinstated
Year US Population CA OK OR Source
1700 800 600 200 NAHDB calculation
1780 400 Mooney estimate
1780 800 Kroeber estimate
1800 800 600 200 NAHDB calculation
1900 300 250 50 NAHDB calculation
1905 278 Official
1910 329 Census
1937 329 U. S. Indian Office
1989 102 BIA
2000 500 400 100 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Klamath
Modoc Sites
Butte Valley:  A Brief History  http://www.buttevalleychamber.com/history.htm
Captain Jack's Stronghold  http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/5views/5views1h11.htm
Capt. James Jackson  http://www.military.com/Content/MoreContent?file=ML_jjackson_bkp
Kaitchkona Woman - Modoc    http://www.powersource.com/gallery/womansp/winema.html
Klamath - Modoc Baskets  http://www.californiabaskets.com/pages/klamathhome.html
Klamath-Modoc Indian Language  http://www.native-languages.org/klamath-modoc.htm
Klamath-Modoc Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=KLA
Klamath-Modoc Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=KLA
Klamath - Modoc Linguistics Page    http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~delancey/klamath.html
Lava Beds National Monument  http://www.nps.gov/labe/
Modoc  http://emuseum.mnsu.edu/cultural/northamerica/modoc.html
Modoc Authors http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t242
Modoc Bibliography  http://www.mip.berkeley.edu/cilc/bibs/modoc.html
Modoc Indian History  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/modoc/modochist.htm
Modoc Indians:  A Native American Saga  http://www.cheewa.com/modoc.html
Modoc Indian War Scene  http://www.printsoldandrare.com/indians/
Modoc Nation (Oklahoma)  http://users.aol.com/Donh523/navapage/modoc.htm
Modoc - Native Americans  http://www.siskiyous.edu/shasta/nat/mod.htm
Modoc - Parairie du Rocher Bluffs  http://www.randolphcountyillinois.net/sub44.htm
Modoc Prayer to a Slain Animal  http://logos.uoregon.edu/explore/oregon/kprayer.html
Modoc - SFSU Narrative   http://bss.sfsu.edu/calstudies/NativeWebPages/modoc.html
Modoc - Surrender of the Modoc  http://nativeamericans.com/Modoc.htm
Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma  http://eighttribes.org/modoc/
Modoc War  http://me.essortment.com/modocwarcaptai_rfjk.htm
Modoc War  http://maxpages.com/modocwar
Modoc War, 1872-1873  http://www.onwar.com/aced/chrono/c1800s/yr70/fmodoc1872.htm
Modoc War, 1872-1873  http://www.militarymuseum.org/Modoc1.html
Winema and the Modoc War  http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2005/spring/winema.html

Last updated 07/26/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press