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Innu

Montagnais-Naskapi

 

 

Ethnie: INNU MONTAGNAIS-NASKAPI
Languages (speakers): Atikamekw (3995), Montagnais (8483), Naskapi (1,117)
Language Group: Cree
Family: Central Algonquian
Stock: Algonquian
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: .Eastern Woodlands and Sub-Arctic
.      The Innu or Montagnais-Naskapi were a nomadic hunter dialectic group. The Atikamekw were reported to have been more sedentary.  They all ranged throughout inland Labrador and inland Quebec bordered on the southwest by a line roughly from James Bay to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. They suffered from the fortunes of the climate of their barren northern territories and were devastated by smallpox.
Aboriginal Bands
NF Ouchestigouetch
PQ. Bersimis, Chicoutimi, Chisedec, Escoumains, Godbout, Mistassini, Nichicun, Ouchestigouetch, Oumamiwek, Papinachois, Tadousac
Present Locations
NF Natuashish
  Sheshatshit, North West River
  Utshimassit, Davis Inlet
PQ Ekuanitshit, Mingan
  Essipit, Escoumains
  Manawan
  Mashteuiatsh, Pointe-Bleu
  Matimekush, Schefferville
  Opitciwan
  Pakuashipi, St-Augustin
  Pessamit, Bersimis/Betsiamites
  Uashat/Mani-utenam, Sept-Îles
  Unaman Shipit, Romaine
  Wemotaci
Year History
1603 Met by Champlain at mouth of Saguenay
1615 Missionary work began by French
1645 Severe winter; starvation, cannibalism
1694 Met Jolliet
1781 Smallpox epidemic
1830 Fort Chimo established
1892 Famine at Fort Chimo
1978 Northeast Quebec Agreement for hydro-electric development
Year Total Population NF PQ Source
1600 5,500     Mooney estimate
1770 3,500 500 3,000 NAHDB calculation
1800 1,400 300 1,100 NAHDB calculation
1812 1,500       Swanton
1857 3,910       Hind and Speck estimate
1900 2,100 300 1,800 NAHDB calculation 
1906 2,138     Swanton
1967 10,353       Rogers and Leacock
1971 11,697       Orenstein
2000 23,000 800 22,200 NAHDB calculation
2005   900     Health Labrador Corporation
2005     4,500   Wikipedia (Atikamekw)
2005     18,815   Angelfire (Montagnais-Naskapi)
Other speakers of the same language:
Cree
Montagnais-Naskapi Sites:
Atikamekw  http://www.indianamarketing.com/anglais/anations/atikam.htm
Atikamekw  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atikamekw
Atikamekw - A General View  http://www.ac-rouen.fr/pedagogie/equipes/ses_net/ses_ped/atikam/2society.html
Atikamekw Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=TET
Atikamekw Language  http://www.languagegeek.com/algon/cree/atikamekw.html
Beavertail Snow Shoes  http://www.birchbarkcanoe.net/snowshoes-beavertail.htm
Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi Language Family Tree  http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_family.asp?subid=2082
Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act  http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/C-45.7/
Davis Inlet  http://www.themdays.com/davisinlet2.html
Innu  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Innu
Innu  http://users.skynet.be/noordamerika/innu_en.htm
Innu Communities  http://www.languagegeek.com/algon/naskapi/inlnu_communities.html
Innu Deadfall Trap  http://www.innu.ca/uanaikan.html
Innu of the Quebec Lower Shore  http://www.rootsweb.com/~qclns/timeline_innu.htm
Innu-Montagnais  http://www.autochtones.gouv.qc.ca/relations_autochtones/profils_nations/innus_en.htm
Innu of Labrador  http://www.labradorvirtualmuseum.ca/27
Labrador History  http://www.hlc.nf.ca/html/body_labrador_history.html
La Romaine  http://www.coastersassociation.com/tourism/town/romain.html
La Romaine Band  http://ilm.gospelcom.net/reserves/quebec/pro_pq33.php
Life of a Montagnais Missionary by François de Crespieul (1639-1702)  http://207.61.100.164/cantext/newfranc/1697life.html
Manawan Atikamekw  http://broadband.gc.ca/demographic_servlet/community_demographics/6056
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve  http://www.pc.gc.ca/pn-np/qc/mingan/visit/visit10a_E.asp
Mingan Band  http://ilm.gospelcom.net/reserves/quebec/pro_pq31.php
Montagnais  http://www.indianamarketing.com/anglais/anations/montag.htm
Montagnais  http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/montagnais.html
Montagnais  http://www.nativeamericans.com/Montagnais.htm
Montagnais  http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/qc/aqc/art/montagnais_e.html
Montagnais & Naskapi  http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/montagnaisandnaskapi.htm
Montagnais du Lac Saint-Jean  http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/nr/nwltr/bae/sum03/sum03_e.html
Montagnais History  http://www.dickshovel.com/mon.html
Montagnais Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=MOE
Montagnais-Mingan  http://www.indianamarketing.com/anglais/anations/!minga-f.htm
Montagnais-Naskapi Indians of Canada  http://www.canadiangenealogy.net/indians/montagais_naskapi_indians.htm
Montagnais-Naskapi Lodges  http://www.canadianheritage.org/reproductions/10033.htm
Montagnais Indians  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10512a.htm
Montagnais Indian Tribe History  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/montagnais/montagnais_indianhist.htm
Montagnais Innu Indians  http://www2.marianopolis.edu/quebechistory/encyclopedia/MontagnaisInnuindians.htm
Montagnais - Mashteuiatsh  http://www.cepn-fnec.com/communautes/eng/mashteuiatsh.html
Montagnais Pipe  http://www.canadianheritage.org/reproductions/21808.htm
Montagnais Squaw  http://artgallery.dal.ca/collection/pcrecords/32942.html
Naskapi Band  http://ilm.gospelcom.net/reserves/quebec/pro_pq39.php
Naskapi Community  http://www.naskapi.ca/
Naskapi Indians  http://www2.marianopolis.edu/quebechistory/encyclopedia/NaskapiIndians.htm
Naskapi Language  http://www.native-languages.org/naskapi.htm
Naskapi Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=NSK
Naskapi Language  http://www.languagegeek.com/algon/naskapi/naskapi.html
Pakua Shipi Band  http://ilm.gospelcom.net/reserves/quebec/pro_pq36.php
Romaine No. 2  http://broadband.gc.ca/demographic_servlet/community_demographics/6077
Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean
Sept-Iles  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sept-%C3%8Eles,_Quebec
Schefferville Band  http://ilm.gospelcom.net/reserves/quebec/pro_pq37.php

Last updated 03/24/05  Copyright © 2005 by Four Directions Press