Native American Languages


Language Phyla
Aztec-Tanoan including Hopi, Paiute, Shoshone, Pima, Ute, Kiowa, Tanoan Pueblo, Cahuilla, Gabrielino, Serrano, Luiseno, and other tribes.
Hokan including Yumans, Pomo, Washoe, Shasta, Karuk, Diegueno, Tonkawan, Coahuiltecans, Karankawans, and possibly Chumash.
Macro-Algonquian including Algonquians like Passamaquoddy, Penobscot, Wampanoag, Pequot, Mohegan, Mahican, Powhatan, Conoy, Nanticoke, Shawnee, Chippewa, Sac, Fox, Kickapoo, Delaware, Cree, Menominee, Cheyenne, Blackfeet, and Arapaho; Muskhogeans like Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Seminole, Alabama, Coushatta, and Natchez.
Macro-Penutian including Wintu, Costanoan, Miwok, Maidu, Yokuts, Nez Perce, Klamath, Modoc, Cayuse, Wallawalla, Yakima and others.
Macro-Siouan including Siouans Lakota, Dakota, Hidatsa, Mandan, Omaha, Osage, Otoe, Missouri, Kansa, Quapaw, Ponca, Crow, Iowa, Winnebago, and Catawba; Iroquoians like Cherokee, Iroquois, Wyandotte, Susquehannock, Tuscarora, Nottoway, and Coree; and Caddoans like Caddo, Pawnee, and Wichita.
Mosan including Salish (Flathead), Quileutte, Duwamish, Suquamish, Makah, Lummi, Tillamook, Puyallup, and others
Na-Dene (also Athapaskan) including Navajo, Apache, Jicarilla Apache, Kiowa Apache, Hupa, Mattole, Tolowa, Cahto, Kalhioqua, and Clatskanie.

Native American Languages by Larry T. B. Sunderland

     Migration evidence is consistent with linguistic evidence.  At least five linguistic linguistic phyla, probably only small tribes at the time, apparently migrated down the arctic desert corridor, in the lee of the Canadian Rockies during the last Ice Age.  It seems that the Siouans and Algonquians turned left at what would become Montana and settled east of the great river that would come to be known as the Mississippi. The Hokans would eventually settle in California, the Aztec-Tanoans would settle in the southwest of what would become Arizona, New Mexico, Sonora, and Chihuahua.  The Penutians would settle in southern Mexico.

     There is evidence that some may have migrated from Asia along a coastal route, skirting the frozen coast.  It would be most likely that, if indeed, a group skirted the coast it would be the ancestors of the Mosan.  It is important to realize that this is extremely vague evidence.  They may well have migrated down the aforementioned corridor east of the Rockies and a transpacific migration is not out of the question for any of the native peoples of the Americas.
     It is important to realize that languages are quite unrelated to culture.  No culture existed in North America that did not include more than one language.  Most included numerous languages.