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Navajo

 

Ethnie: NAVAJO (DINÉ)
Language: Western Apachean
Family: Southern Athapaskan
Stock: Athapaskan
Phylum: Na-Dene
Macro-Culture: Southwest
Speakers 148,930    1990 Census

     The Apacheans, including the Navajos, began to arrive in the southwest from Canada late in the 15th century on a route that took them east of the Rockies. There is, however, evidence that four or so smaller groups may have migrated into the area via the Great Basin as early as the 12th century. Evidence of this also rests in the ethnie’s two religions, first the Begochidi or Enemy Way followed later by the Blessing Way. All of the so-called Navajo tribes were, at first, predatory nomadic hunter/gatherers. They acquired guns and horses early and preyed on the sedentary peoples of the area.

     The Navajo, upon arriving in the southwest, settled in north central New Mexico with many becoming pastoral and/or farmers albeit maintaining their predatory tendencies. They extended into northeastern Arizona as early as 1622, and later, southern Utah and Colorado. They were defeated by Kit Carson and interred for five years in New Mexico before establishing on a reservation in 1868.

     The Navajo are now the largest tribe in population in the United States.

Aboriginal Locations
NM
Present Locations
AZ NAVAJO RESERVATION, AZ, NM, UT, Window Rock, AZ
NM ALAMO RESERVATION, Alamo
CANONCITO RESERVATION, Canoncito
RAMAH RESERVATION, Ramah
Year History
1100 Possible earliest arrivals in southwest
1540 Probably first seen by Coronado
1583 Were growing some crops according to Diego Perez Luxan
16XX Introduction of sheep revolutionized tribal economic status
1629 First mentioned by Zarate-Salmaron
1696 Joined by some Pueblo refugees after Spanish reconquest
1753 Land grants given to Spanish settlers
1754 Ute and Comanche raids forced abandonment of Dinetah region
1804 Spanish military killed 118 in punitive attack at Massacre Canyon
1846 Treaty with United States
1847 Several punitive US military strikes
1849 Treaty with United States, disregarded
1851 Fort Defiance established
1860 Attacked Fort Defiance
1861 Fort Defiance abandoned due to Civil War
1863 Under orders to stop Navajo depredations, great numbers of sheep slaughtered by Kit Carson, 301 Navajos killed by troops, most of tribe taken prisoner and transferred to Fort Sumner, Bosque Redondo, NM "Long Walk"
1868 Reservation established on Arizona, New Mexico border, several later expansions into Utah, Arizona, New Mexico until 1949; Navajo raiding resumed
1870 Manualito and Narbano took action to curtail raiding
1893 Drought caused economic collapse
1897 Episcopalian hospital established at Ft. Defiance
1900 First on reservation boarding school established at Little Water
1902 Hopi Agency separated from Navajo
1924 Henry Chee Dodge elected chairman
1945 Tribe began to vote
1974 Navajo Relocation Act, expelled from Hopi/Navajo Joint Use Area
1985 Broken Rainbow won Academy Award for best documentary, subject: Navajo relocation from Hopi lands
1993

Rodent borne viral epidemic, hantavirus

Year Population Source
1680 8,000 Mooney estimate
1700 8,000 NAHDB calculation
1800 8,000 NAHDB calculation
1855 7,500 BIA
1868 7,000  Tribal roll
1875 11,768 Terrell estimate
1895 20,500 BIA
1900 23,000 NAHDB calculation
1905 26,390 BIA
1947 56,000 Dale estimate
1980 146,000 Census estimate
1981 160,722 BIA
1989 185,661 BIA
2000  220,000 NAHDB projection
Population Apportionment
Location Arrival 1700 1800 1900 2000
AZ 6000 6000 6000 16000 119,000
NM 2000 2000 2000 6000 95000
UT  1000  6000
Total 8000 8000 8000 23000 220,000
Other speakers of the same language:
Apache
Navajo Sites:
Arizona, Hopi Tribe and Navajo Nation  http://www.osmre.gov/arizonaindex.htm
Begay, Fred  http://www.physicscentral.com/people/people-04-5.pdf
Blessing Way  http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9015640
Building a Hogan  http://waltonfeed.com/peoples/navajo/hogan.html
Center for Dine' Studies  http://www.dinecollege.edu/cds/page01.html
Chief Manuelito:  Navajo Tribe  http://www.yourtruehero.org/content/hero/view_hero.asp?36127
Chinle  http://www.commerce.state.az.us/doclib/commune/chinle.pdf
Code Talkers - Wind Speakers  http://www.beliefnet.com/story/51/story_5154_1.html
Coyote Way  http://www.triplehood.com/cw-ch1.htm
Dodge, Henry Chee  http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0900081.html
Dodge, Henry Chee  http://www.lapahie.com/Henry_Chee_Dodge.cfm
Explore the Navajo Nation  http://www.americanwest.com/pages/navajo2.htm
Ganado History  http://www.navajosage.org/history.html
Indian Wars of Arizona  http://jeff.scott.tripod.com/indian.html
Living in the Navajo Past  http://waltonfeed.com/peoples/navajo/index.html
Navajo  http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/navajo.html
Navajo  http://www.emayzine.com/lectures/navajo.htm
Navajo Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t59
Navajo Basket:  Fannie King  http://www.nizhoni-moses.com/figurines/navajo_basket02.html
Navajo Basket Weaving  http://twinrocks.com/tempemails/byu_video/
Navajo Basket Weaving  http://www.nativeamericanx.com/photogallery/Navajo-Basket-Weaving/
Navajo Code Talkers  http://www.yvwiiusdinvnohii.net/history/usmccode.htm
Navajo Code Talkers  http://history1900s.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/navajacode.htm
Navajo Code Talkers  http://raphael.math.uic.edu/~jeremy/crypt/contrib/mollo2.html
Navajo Code Talkers:  Marine Corps  http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq12-1.htm
Navajo Code Talkers - WWII  http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq61-2.htm
Navajo Conflicts  http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1171.html
Navajo Cultural History and Legends  http://www.redshift.com/~bcbelknap/ashtlo/leonavajovalues.html
Navajo Culture  http://www.vanderbilt.edu/snap/culture.html
Navajo (Dine' Bizaad)  http://www.omniglot.com/writing/navajo.htm
Navajo: Dine' (The People)  http://www.ausbcomp.com/redman/navajo.htm
Navajo History  http://www.nps.gov/nava/nav.htm
Navajo History and Ancestral Art Great site  http://www.ancestral.com/cultures/north_america/navajo.html
Navajo-Hoip Land Commission Papers  http://www.cwis.org/navhop.html
Navajo Hopi Land Dispute  http://www.kstrom.net/isk/maps/az/navhopi.html
Navajo Indian Bread  http://members.cox.net/in2vabeach/ai/brds/navajoindian.htm
Navajo Indian Jewelry Gallery  http://www.tribalworks.com/Native_American_Indian_jewelry_gallery_Navajo.htm
Navajo Indians  http://inkido.indiana.edu/w310work/romac/navajo.htm
Navajo Indians  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10720a.htm
Navajo Indian Silversmithing  http://www.indianvillage.com/stories/Silversmithing.htm
Navajo Indian Trading Post ...  http://americanhistory.si.edu/onthemove/collection/object_576.html
Navajo Jewelry  http://www.americanindianjewelry.com/NAVTNeck6.html
Navajo Land  http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq12-1.htm
Navajo Language  http://www.u.arizona.edu/~kchief/Language.html
Navajo Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=NAV
Navajo Language Bibliography  http://www.swarthmore.edu/SocSci/tfernal1/navbib.htm
Navajo Language (Dineh)  http://www.native-languages.org/navajo.htm
Navajo Language Example  http://waltonfeed.com/peoples/navajo/language.html
Navajo Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=NAV
Navajo Nation  http://www.navajo.org/
Navajo Nation  http://www.crystalinks.com/navajos.html
Navajo Night Way  http://www.beliefnet.com/story/51/story_5154_1.html
Navajo Overview  http://www.greatdreams.com/navajo.htm
Navajo Past  http://waltonfeed.com/peoples/navajo/
Navajo People  http://www.desertusa.com/ind1/du_peo_navajo.html
Navajo People  http://www.utah.com/tribes/navajo_people.htm
Navajo Pottery  http://artswork.asu.edu/arts/students/navajo/
Navajo Pottery  http://www.indiansummer.com/npottery.htm
Navajo Pottery  http://www.foutzrug.com/pottery/
Navajo Pottery  http://www.art-legends.com/Navajo.html
Navajo Pottery  http://www.navajoworld.com/pottery/
Navajo Pottery  http://www.penfieldgallery.com/Navajo.html
Navajo Pottery  http://4peaksgallery.com/pottery_navajo.htm
Navajo Pottery  http://www.nativeart.net/keithyazziejaypot1.shtml
Navajo Pottery  http://www.indiansun.net/storeNPt.asp
Navajo Pottery, Alice Cling  http://www.nizhoni-moses.com/indian_pottery/navajo_pottery02.html
Navajo Pottery, Fay Tso  http://www.tribalworks.com/PE44_Navajo_Faye_Tso_pot.htm
Navajo Pottery, Kachina Dolls, and Dream Catchers  http://www.navajoworld.com/
Navajo Pottery Making  http://artswork.asu.edu/arts/students/navajo/lesson3.htm
Navajo Pottery, Vintage  http://estate.goantiques.com/detail,vintage-navajo-pottery,795679.html
Navajo Rite of Passage, Kinaalda  http://www.wmm.com/girlsproject/c556.htm
Navajo Rug Repair Company  http://www.navajorugrepair.com/regionalrugs.htm
Navajo Rugs  http://www.canyonart.com/rugs.htm
Navajo Rugs  http://www.surweb.org/
Navajo Sand Painting  http://www.americana.net/sandpaintings_article.html
Navajo Sand Paintings  http://www.nativeinnovations.com/sandpaintings.htm
Navajo Timeline  http://www.lapahie.com/Timeline.cfm
Navajo Treaty - 1868  http://www.lapahie.com/Dine_Treaty.cfm
Navajo Tribe:  Coal Production  http://www.osmre.gov/pdf/navajotribe.pdf
Navajo Weaving History  http://www.americana.net/rugs_article.html
Navajo Weaving, Social History  http://www.collectorsguide.com/fa/fa064.shtml
Navajo Woodcarver Bibliography  http://www.calacademy.org/research/library/biodiv/biblio/dedman.htm
Manuelito 1818-1893  http://www.lapahie.com/Manuelito.cfm
Manuelito Biography   http://www.bookrags.com/biography/manuelito/
Monument Valley:  Navajo Tribal Park  http://www.desertusa.com/monvalley/
Pueblos of Dinetah  http://www.nm.blm.gov/features/dinetah/navajo_history.html
Simon Canyon Ruin  http://www.neartime.com/ruins/simon.htm
Totems to Turquoise  http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/totems/contemporary/
Stories of Navajo Crafts and Tradition  http://www.math.utah.edu/~clemens/stories.html
Traditional Navajo Clan Practices  http://www.umass.edu/legal/derrico/navajo_childhood.html
Walk In Beauty:  Hozho and Navajo Basketry  http://www.tfaoi.com/aa/3aa/3aa513.htm

Last updated 6/25/03  Copyright © 2003 by Four Directions Press