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Okanogan

 

 

Ethnie: OKANOGAN
Language: Okanogan
Family: Southern Interior Salish
Stock: Interior Salish
Phylum: Salishan
Macro-Culture: Northwest Plateau
Speakers 500    1977 SIL
     The Okanogan were a semi-sedentary hunter/gatherer confederacy and dialectic group the Northwestern Plateau.  They lived in Washington on the Okanogan River above the mouth of the Similkameen to the Canadian border, and around Lake Okanogan in British Columbia.  They traded with the first Whites to arrive, but ultimately had conflicts with and suffered from the later settlers.  
      The Okanogan were driven southward by Athapaskans, but later extended into Similkameen and north to displace the Shuswap.  The establishment of the U. S. and Canada international boundary divided their territory and ultimately the tribe gathered in Canada.  The U.. S. Okanogan finally settled on and confederated into the Colville Reservation, and are no longer enumerated separately.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
BC (29), WA (11)
Oregon Present Locations
BC    Lower Similkameen, Keremeos
         Osoyoos, Oliver
         Westbank, Westbank
WA  Colville Reservation, Nespelem
Year History
1782 Smallpox epidemic
1809 David Thompson established Kullyspell House trading post on Lake Pend d'Orielle
1810 David Thompson established Spokane House
1811 David Thompson explored the length of the Columbia River
1841 Influx of Oregon Trail settlers began, conflicts followed
1846 Tribe divided by international boundary, most migrated north
1872 Colville Reservation established
1884 Canadian Pacific Railroad completed
Year Total Population BC WA Source
1700 2,000 1,500 500 NAHDB calculation
1780 2,000 Mooney estimate
1800 2,000 1,500 500 NAHDB calculation
1900 1,500 1,500 NAHDB calculation (WA had confederated into Colville) 
1905 1,516 CDIA
2000 650 650 NAHDB calculation
2004 688 688 Indian Life Online
Other speakers of the same language:
Sanpoil
Okanogan Sites:
Anisiche Bill's Artificial Nose  http://members.tripod.com/~Cayuse/index-51.html
Changing Columbia Basin  http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/anth481/sal/crintro1.htm
Colville Confederated Tribes Profile  http://www.npaihb.org/profiles/tribal_profiles/Washington/Colville%20Confederated%20Tribes%20Profile.htm
Colville Reservation ...  http://www.grandcoulee.com/CCTtab/history.html
Coyote Tales  http://www.tojt.com/studyguides/Guides/gcoyote.html
Cultures Clash:  The Land Grab  http://www.ccrh.org/comm/moses/cultures1.html
Emerson, Elaine Timentwa  http://www.arts.wa.gov/progFA/heritageAwd/1995_emerson.htm
Ethnobotany of Middle Columbia Native Americans  http://www.cwnp.org/ethnobot2.html
Lower Similkameen Indian Band  http://www.lsib.org/
Lower Similkameen Indian Band  http://www.gospelcom.net/ilm/reserves/bc/pro_bc60.php
Mourning Dove (Christine Quintasket)  http://voices.cla.umn.edu/newsite/authors/DOVEmourning.htm
Mourning Dove (Okanogan)  (1888-1936)  http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/bassr/heath/syllabuild/iguide/mourning.html
Northwest Plateau Culture and Ethnobotany  http://www.fourdir.com/northwest_plateau_culture.htm
Okanogan  http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/society/A0836488.html
Okanogan Indian Tribe  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/washington/okanagonindianhist.htm
Okanogan Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=OKA
Okanogan Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=OKA
Okanogan Native  http://content.wsulibs.wsu.edu/cgi-bin/viewer.exe?CISOROOT=/Matsura&CISOPTR=1251
Oregon Trail  http://linnhistory.peak.org/1853/1853immore.html
Osoyoos Indian Band  http://www.gospelcom.net/ilm/reserves/bc/pro_bc58.php
Retired Indian Affairs Leader Dies  http://www.enterprisenewspapers.com/archive/2004/2/20/200421916501765.cfm
Thompson, David ...  http://www.thefurtrapper.com/david_thompson.htm
Westbank Indian Band  http://ilm.gospelcom.net/reserves/bc/pro_bc63.php

Last updated 03/10/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press