FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE

 

Omaha

 

 

Ethnie: OMAHA
Language: Omaha-Ponca
Family Dhegiha
Stock: Siouan Proper
Phylum: Siouan
Macro-Culture: Great Plains
Speakers 85 speakers    1993 Zeps
      The Omaha were a sedentary tribe which maintained much of their earlier Eastern Woodlands culture, except during the summer when they took up a migratory life of hunting the buffalo.  They had separated late from other Dhegihan tribes, likely as a result of the domino effect of the Beaver Wars east of the Mississippi.  They ultimately located in northeastern Nebraska.
      The Ponca were among the Omaha until the mid-1700's.  The Omaha were devastated by smallpox subsequent to the fissioning of the Ponca tribe.  The Omaha reside today in a small portion of their aboriginal territory.  The Omaha are the originators of the modern pow wow holding their first in 1804 which was witnessed by Lewis and Clark.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
IL (Omaha, Ponca)
Present Locations
NE  Omaha Resevation, Macy
Year History
167X Approximate time of removal from Illinois to Nebraska as a result of the domino effect of the Beaver Wars, mentioned as Mahas, a wandering nation on a Marwuette map which placed them just east of the Missouri in central Iowa
1700 Reference in Beaurain's "Memoire", Pierre Charles le Seur without visiting tribe recorded their location on the Big Sioux River, southeast of present Sioux Falls in South Dakota and with a population of 4,000
1735 First Omaha village west of the Missouri established on Bow Creek in present Cedar County, Nebraska
1755 Village establish near present location of tribe; Ponca fissioned form the Omaha
1775 Large village of Tonwontonga established under Chief Blackbird
1777 Tribe bacame involved in fur trade
1795 Scotsman John McKay established trading post on the Missouri in present Nebraska, visited Omaha village and met Chief Blackbird
1800 Smallpox epidemic, 2/3 losses
1804 Celebrated a Whe'wahchee or dance of thanksgiving, the first pow wow ever, witnessed by Lewis and Clark
1808 Manuel Lisa established trading posts in Nebraska near the Omaha, took an Omaha wife, introduced an array of vegetables to the tribe
1812 Manuel Lisa built substantial trading post
1815 Treaty of friendship with U.S.
1824 Jean-Pierre Cabanne established trading post 2.5 miles south of Fort Lisa
1831 Smallpox epidemic
1836 Tribe ceded large tracts of land in Missouri to U.S.
1843 Tribe attacked by Lakota after returning to Big Village
1844 Tribe abandoned Big Village and relocated to Papillion Creek
1854 Sold their lands except for a reserve
1865 Gave up the northern part of their territories to the Wiinnebago
1882 Granted lands in severalty and made citizens
1889 Susan La Flesche Picotte became the first Native American woman to become a Medical Doctor
Year Total Population IN NE SD Source
Arrival 4,600 4,600
1700 4,000 4,000 NAHDB calculation
1780 2,800 2,800 Mooney estimate
1800 2,800 2,800 NAHDB calculation
1803 300 300 Smallpox epidemic, 90% losses
1804 600 600 Lewis and Clark
1829 1,900 1,900 Swanton
1849 1,600 1,600 Swanton
1851 1,349 1,349 Schoolcroft estimate
1880 1,349 1,349 Census
1900 1,300 1,300 NAHDB calculation 
1906 1,228 1,228 US Indian Office
1910 1,105 1,105 Census
1923 1,440 1,440 US Indian Office
1930 1,103 1,103 Census
1937 1,684 1,684 US Indian Office
1973 1,369 1,369 BIA
1981 1,469 1,469 BIA
1989 1,860 1,806 BIA estimate
2000 5,000 5,000 NAHDB calculation
2005 5,992 5,992
Other speakers of the same language:
Ponca
Omaha Sites:
Blackbird Hill  http://www.prairieghosts.com/blackbird.html
Blackbird Hill (Clark Account)  http://www.lewis-clark.org/content/content-article.asp?ArticleID=1052
Buffalo Hunt:  Omaha Tribe ...  http://net.unl.edu/swi/pers/buffalohunt.html
Fletcher, Alice Cunningham  http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/information/biography/fghij/fletcher_alice.html
Fletcher, Alice Cunningham  http://www.cas.usf.edu/anthropology/women/fletcher/fletcher.htm
Fontenelle, Logan  http://www.nde.state.ne.us/SS/notables/fontenelle.html
Fontenelle Natuve Association  http://www.fontenelleforest.org/history.html
La Flesche Family  http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/naind/html/na_019300_lafleschefam.htm
La Flesche, Joesph  http://www.panesu.org/subject/notable/Joseph-LaFlesche-Iron-Eye
La Flesche-Picotte M.D., Susan, First Native American Woman M.D.  http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/if_you_knew/if_you_knew_12.html
Lewis and Clark Trail  http://www.lewisandclarktrail.com/section1/necities/Omaha/
Lisa, Manuel  http://www.olden-times.com/OldtimeNebraska/n-csnyder/nbstory/story10.html
Lisa, Manuel  http://klesinger.com/jbp/mlisa1.html
Lisa, Manuel  http://www.nebraskastudies.org/0400/frameset_reset.html?http://www.nebraskastudies.org/0400/stories/0401_0122.html
Omaha  http://www.nativeamericans.com/Omaha.htm
Omaha and Ponca Tribes  http://www.nebraskastudies.org/0300/frameset_reset.html?http://www.nebraskastudies.org/0300/stories/0301_0104.html
Omaha Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t63
Omaha Cosmogony  http://alexm.here.ru/mirrors/www.enteract.com/jwalz/Eliade/045.html
Omaha Images of Renewal  http://www.brandonu.ca/Library/CJNS/7.2/Ridington.pdf
Omaha Indian Heritage Project  http://libr.unl.edu:2000/omaha/
Omaha Indian Village  http://www.cbpl.lib.ia.us/Simons/omahavillage.htm
Omaha Indians of Nebraska  http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/es/ne/omaha_1
Omaha Jacket  http://www.joslyn.org/permcol/native/pages/omaha.html
Omaha Language Classes ...  http://www.nativeamericans.com/Omaha.htm
Omaha Literature  http://www.indigenouspeople.net/omaha.htm
Omaha Music  http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/omhhtml/omhhome.html
Omaha Orthagraphy  http://spot.colorado.edu/~koontz/faq/orthography.htm
Omaha-Ponca  http://wings.buffalo.edu/linguistics/ssila/learning/omaha.htm
Omaha-Ponca Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=OMA
Omaha-Ponca Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=OMA
Omaha:  Reinterpreting the Past  http://www.neh.fed.us/news/humanities/2002-11/ancestralbones.html
Omaha Timeline  http://omahahistory.org/Education_Timeline.htm
Omaha Tribal History  http://www.thenicc.edu/OmahaTribeHistory.htm
Omaha Tribal Research Project  http://www.jackalopearts.org/othrphome.html
Omaha Tribe  http://www.omaha.lib.ne.us/transmiss/congress/omaha.html
Omaha Tribe  http://gretna.esu3.org/elem/*3_folder/nawebpages/Omaha.html
Omaha Tribe  http://www.nebraskahistory.org/publish/markers/texts/omaha_tribe.htm
Omaha Tribe of Nebraska  http://www.omahatribe.com/
Omaha Tribe of Nebraska  http://www.aaanativearts.com/article309.html
Omaha Tribe of Nebraska  http://www.omahatribeofnebraska.com/
Omaha Tribe of Nebraska Community Profile  http://www.mnisose.org/profiles/omaha.htm
Omaha Tribe Uses 1864 Treaty as Leverage  http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1884
Oregon Trail  http://linnhistory.peak.org/1853/1853immore.html
Picotte Memorial Hospital  http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/feature/indian/2001/picotte.htm
Smile of God  http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=NeiSmil.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=all
Tonwantonga  http://www.panesu.org/subject/markers/Tonwantonga
Umanhom School  http://www.lsi.ku.edu/jgprojects/cwptlms/html2002/ParticipatingSchoolSitePages/OmahaN.htm

Last updated 04/02/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press