Ethnie: OTOE (OTO)
Dialect: Iowa-Oto
Language: Chiwere
Family Central Mississippi Valley Siouan
Stock: Siouan Proper
Phylum: Siouan
Macro-Culture: Great Plains
Speakers Language extict
      The Otoe were a sedentary hunter/farmer nation but became nomadic buffalo hunters in the summer.  They were closely associated and related to the Iowa tribe and located in central Iowa on the Des Moines River upon White arrival, but soon moved to the lower Platte and neighboring Missouri Rivers.
     Tradition states that they were once one nation which included the Iowa, Missouria, and Winnebago .  They first split from the Winnebago, and later from the Iowa.  A later fission from the Missouri resulted from a quarrel between two chiefs over the seduction of one's daughter by the son of the other.  Linguistic evidence concurs with the order and timing of these events.
      White pressure and inter-tribal wars forced numerous relocations and large population losses in the 19th century.  They were finally rejoined by remnants of their closest relatives, the Missouria.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
Present Locations
OK  Otoe-Missouria Tribe, Pawnee
Year History
1655 Met by Radisson with a party of French traders on the Mississippi, north of the mouth of the Wisconsin
1683 Included on Marquette's map as being on the Des Moines River
1680 Two Otoe chiefs visited La Salle in Illinois, told him of fighting Spaniards far to the west
1700 On Blue Earth River per Le Sueur
1804 Had town on the Platte near its mouth when visited by Lewis and Clark
1830 Ceded Missouri and Iowa land by treaty, joined by Missouria tribe
1836 Ceded remaining Missouri and Iowa lands
1854 Ceded all remaining land except for that on the Big Blue River by treaty, them exchanged for land taken by from the Kaw
1876 Sold west end of reserve
1881 Sold remainder of land for Oklahoma reserve
Year Total Population IA NE OK Source
Arrival 2,000 2,000
1700 1,000 1,000 NAHDB calculation
1780 900 Mooney estimate
1800 900 900 NAHDB calculation
1804 500 Lewis and Clark
1843 931 US Indian Office
1849 900 Burrows estimate
1862 708 US Indian Office
1867 511 US Indian Office
1877 457 US Indian Office
1886 334 US Indian Office
1900 350 350 NAHDB calculation 
1906 390 US Indian Office
1910 332 Census
1930 627 Census
1937 756 US Indian Office
1981 1,156 BIA
1989 1,306 BIA estimate
2000 2,000 2,000 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Iowa, Missouria
Otoe Sites:
Broken Claw
Chiwere:  Language of the Ioway, Otoe, and Missouria
Daily, Truman Washington
De Roin, Joseph
Fur Trade Impact on Otoe Nation
Iowa-Otoe-Missouria Language
Iowa-Oto Language
Iowa-Oto Linguistic Lineage
Ioway-Oto-Missouria Language Bibliography
Lewis and Clark to the Oto Indians
Lewis and Clark - Oto Indians
Merrill, Moses and Eliza
Otoe and Missouria Treaty
Otoe Authors
Otoe Dancer
Otoe Encounter
Oto Nation
Otoe Indian Police
Otoe Indian Tribe
Otoe-Missouria Flag
Otoe-Missouria History
Otoe-Missouria Nation
Otoe-Missouria Nation Returns ...
Otoe-Missouria Tribe of Oklahoma
Otoe Timeline
Otoe Tribe
Shaumnekusse (Prairie Wolf), Part 1
Shaumnekusse (Prairie Wolf), Part 2
Two Legged Creature

Last updated 04/04/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press