Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa pine) #23809 Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa pine) #23805
Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa
Common Name Ponderosa pine, Yellow pine
Latin Name Pinus ponderosa
Family Pinaceae
Sunset zones / USDA zones 1-10, 14-21, H1 /
Type / Form Tree / Large
Native Habitat Dry slopes of mountains of California. from 3,000 to 7,000 feet
Soil Dry to moist, decomposed granite, sand, clay loam, limestone, low to some organic content, well drained
Water Once to twice per month depending on soil in hot weather
Exposure Full sun
Height X Width To 100 feet X 30 feet , 200 feet tall unusual
Protective Mechanism None
Leaves Evergreen, 5 to 10 inches long, with three (sometimes 2) tough, yellow-green needles per fascicle. When crushed, needles have a turpentine odor sometimes reminiscent of citrus.
Flowers Monoecious; males yellow-red, cylindrical, in clusters near ends of branches; females reddish at branch tips. Cones are ovoid, 3 to 6 inches long, sessile, red-brown in color, armed with a slender prickle, maturing late summer.
Bark / Roots Very dark (nearly black) on young trees, developing cinnamon colored plates and deep furrows. Stout, orange in color, turning black. Buds often covered with resin.
Maintenance Low
Propagation It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4c can improve the germination of stored seed. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[200]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away.
Pests and diseases

Several insects mine buds and shoots, primarily of young trees. Although seldom killed, trees are retarded in growth when infestations are severe. Pine tip moths (Rhyacionia spp.) and the gouty pitch midge (Cecidomyia piniinopis) kill the buds and shoots they mine. A more insidious pest, until recently overlooked and overrated, is the western pineshoot borer (Eucosma sonomana) (21). Larvae of this species bore within the pith of the terminal shoot, stunting but seldom killing them. Shoots that are potentially more robust are more likely to be infested than are weaker shoots. Accordingly, direct comparisons of infested vs. uninfested shoot lengths will underestimate actual growth loss. Each terminal shoot infested by a larva that developed to maturity was reduced in length that year by more than 25 percent in one study (59).  The pine reproduction weevil (Cylindrocopturus eatoni), a native of California and, presumably, Oregon, can be a threat to slow-growing plantations. Its impact has declined, however, with the improvement in planting stock and control of competing vegetation.  Defoliating insects, such as the pine butterfly (Neophasia menapia) and the pandora moth (Coloradia pandora), periodically cause damage over extensive areas. The pine needle sheathminer (Zelleria haimbachi) can be locally severe in young stands.

Lndscape uses Erosion control, windbreak, low maintenance, background
Garden Suitability Thornless, Songbird, Fragrant, Mountain
Ornamental Value Dark green needles, heat marginal
Nature Value Nuts eaten by squirrels
Native American Uses Nuts eaten raw or baked
Links  
    Images and data http://www.cnr.vt.edu/DENDRO/DENDROLOGY/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=108
    Images and data http://www.conifers.org/pi/pin/ponderosa.htm
    Images and data http://www.borealforest.org/world/trees/ponderosa_pine.htm
    Images and data http://www.na.fs.fed.us/pubs/silvics_manual/Volume_1/pinus/ponderosa.htm
    Images and data http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinus_ponderosa
    Images and data http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Pinus+ponderosa
    Images and data http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/species/pipo.htm
    Images and data http://swbiodiversity.org/seinet/taxa/index.php?taxon=4058
    Images and data http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=PIPO
    Images and data http://www.coestatepark.com/pinus_ponderosa.htm
    Images and data http://www.swcoloradowildflowers.com/Tree%20Enlarged%20Photo%20Pages/pinus%20ponderosa.htm
    Images and data http://www.calflora.org/cgi-bin/species_query.cgi?where-calrecnum=6521
    Images and data http://www.nearctica.com/trees/conifer/pinus/Ppond.htm
    Images and data http://www.fw.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=108
    Images http://www.coestatepark.com/pinus_ponderosa.htm
    Data http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200005351
    Data http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/pinponp/all.html
    Nursery, images and data http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/pinus-ponderosa
    Nursery Oak Hills Nursery, 13874 Ranchero Road, Oak Hills, 92345, 760-947-6261
    Distribution map http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PIPO
Note: Moderate pollinator
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