photo Douglas-fir planted as windbreak
File:Douglas Fir buds.jpg
Large Photo of Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca Large Photo of Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca
Common Name Rocky Mountain Douglas Fir
Latin Name Pseudotsuga menziesii
Family Pinaceae
Sunset zones / USDA zones 1-10,14-17 / 4-9b
Type / Form Tree / Large
Native Habitat 5,000 to tree-line in western U. S. except California
Soil Dry to moist, decomposed granite, sand, clay loam, limestone, low to some organic content, well drained
Water Once to twice per month depending on soil in hot weather
Exposure Full sun
Height X Width 40 feet X 20 feet , 200 feet tall unusual and usually near Pacific coast
Protective Mechanism None
Leaves Evergreen, single needles that lack woody pegs or suction cups, yellow-green to blue-green, 3/4 to 1 1/4 inches long, tips blunt or slightly rounded, very fragrant.
Flowers Monoecious; males oblong, red to yellow, near branch tips; females reddish, with long bracts, occurring near branch tips. Cones very distinctive, 3 to 4 inches long with rounded scales. Three-lobed bracts extend beyond the cone scales and resemble mouse posteriors. Maturing in late summer.
Bark / Roots Smooth and gray on young stems, becoming thickened, red-brown with ridges and deep furrows. Twigs slender and red-brown, with long, sharp, pointed, red-brown buds.
Maintenamce Low
Propagation Seed - best sown in the autumn to winter in a cold frame so that it is stratified. The seed can also be stored dry and sown in late winter. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in light shade in the cold frame for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Seedlings tolerate light shade for their first few years of growth. Cones often fall from the tree with their seed still inside. If you have plenty of seed then it can be sown in an outdoor seedbed in early spring. Grow the plants on for at least two years in the seedbed before planting them out in late autumn or early spring.
Pests and diseases Shoestring root rot (Armillaria mellea) and laminated root rot (Phillinus weirii) can cause significant damage in plantations.  Infected trees are killed or weakened and blown over by wind.  Red ring rot (Phillinus pini), a heart rot, causes more damage than any other decay.  The Douglas-fir beetle is the most damaging insect and often attacks fire-killed or fire-weakened trees [31].
Landscape uses  
Garden Suitability Thornless, Songbird, Fragrant, Mountain
Ornamental Value Long dark green needles, fragrant
Nature Value Host to insects and birds
Native American Uses Construction, basketry, medicinal,
Links  
    Images and data http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Pseudotsuga+menziesii
    Images and data http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=PSME
    Images and data http://www.desert-tropicals.com/Plants/Pinaceae/Pseudotsuga_menziesii.html
    Images and data http://www.nearctica.com/trees/conifer/tsuga/Pmenz.htm
    Images and data http://www.nazflora.org/Pseudotsuga%20menziesii%20v%20glauca.htm
    Images and data http://www.hort.uconn.edu/plants/p/psemen/psemen1.html
    Images and data http://www.cnr.vt.edu/DENDRO/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=105
    Images and data http://www.swcoloradowildflowers.com/Tree%20Enlarged%20Photo%20Pages/pseudotsuga%20menziesii.htm
    Images and data http://www.conifers.org/pi/ps/menziesii.htm
    Data http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/psemenm/all.html
    Distribution map http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PSMEG
    Nursery, images and data http://www.laspilitas.com/plants/547.htm
    Nursery Oak Hills Nursery, 13874 Ranchero Road, Oak Hills, 92345, 760-947-6261
  Moderate pollinator
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