FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE

 

Pawnee

 

 

Ethnie: PAWNEE
Dialect Pawnee
Language: Pawnee-Arikara
Family Pawnee-Kitsai
Stock: Northern Caddoan
Phylum: Caddoan
Macro-Culture: Great Plains
Speakers 4 speakers    1977 SIL
      The Pawnee were a sedentary hunter/farmer nation but became nomadic buffalo hunters in the summer.  They lived about the middle course of the Platte River and on the Republican fork of the Kansas River.  The Arikara fissioned from the Skidi Pawnee at a late date.
      Their territory was imposed upon by the entry of the Sioux and Cheyenne onto the plains resulting in wars.  They were victimized further by the predatory Comanche and Kiowa and fought with the Osage.  They allied with the Whites, but later suffered from White introduced diseases as well as their depredations.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
KA  (Kitkehahki or Republican)
NE  (Chaui or Grand Pawnee, Pitahauerat or Tapage, Skidi)
Present Locations
OK  Pawnee Tribe, Pawnee
Year History
1541 Met by Spaniards under Coronado
1601 Encountered by Onate
1682 Tribe had horses
1700 Arikara had fissioned from Skidi Pawnee before this date
1770 Southern asd Skidi tribes rejoined after fur trade declined
1795 Arikara returned to Pawnee
1803 Settler influx as a result of Louisiana Purchase, allied with Whites for protection against Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, and Apache
1816 Morning Star human sacrifice ceremony ended by 19 year old Petalsharo (Man Chief)
1818 Killed 84 Osage in battle
1826 Osage killed 18 Pawnee
1829 400 warlike Pawnee nomads in Indian Territory
1833 Ceded lands by treaty
1839 Probable smallpox epidemic
1848 Ceded lands by treaty
1849 Cholera epidemic
1857 Ceded lands by treaty
1865 Frank and Luther North organized a band of Pawnee scouts for US Cavalry battles with plains tribes
1869 Battle at Summit Springs vs. Cheyenne, Pawnee scout Mad Bear received Congressional Medal of Honor
1873 Sioux attack killed 150 Pawnee including Petalsharo (Sky Chief) at Massacre Canyon, Nebraska
1876 Ceded remaining lands for tract in Oklahoma, suffered severely from move
Year Total Population KA NE OK Source
Arrival 15,000 3,000 12,000
1700 12,000 3,000 9,000 NAHDB calculation
1780 10,000 Mooney estimate
1800 10,000 NAHDB calculation
1856 4,686 Swanton
1861 3,416 Swanton
1879 1,440 US Indian Office
1900 700 700 NAHDB calculation 
1906 649 US Indian Office
1910 633 Census
1923 773 US Indian Office
1930 730 Census
1937 959 US Indian Office
1981 2,066 BIA
1989 2,229 BIA estimate
2000 3,000 3,000 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Arikara
Pawnee Sites:
Ancient Pawnee Medal  http://www.rootsweb.com/~neresour/OLLibrary/Journals/HPR/Vol02/nhrv02p4.html
Battle at Massacre Canyon  http://www.buffalocommons.org/docs/smenu1/massacre.html
Battle Creek History  http://bcps.esu8.org/history1.htm
Battle at Summit Springs  http://www.thehistorynet.com/we/blalderdice/index3.html
Dying Songs  http://www.ocolly.com/issues/2001_Spring/010420/stories/songs.html
Genoa - Nance County  http://www.casde.unl.edu/history/counties/nance/genoa/genoa.htm
Gover, Kevin, Apology  http://www.progressive.org/mpvdbk00.htm
History of St. John's  http://www.skally.net/sj/hist.html
Lift Every Pawnee Voice  http://www.americanprofile.com/issues/20020623/20020623_2228.asp
Mad Bear, Pawnee, Congressional Medal of Honor Recipient  http://www.medalofhonor.com/MadBear.htm
Myth, Folktale, and Ritual ...  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2455/is_n1_v34/ai_20925785
Native American Portraits  http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/whtour/library-paintings.html
Pawnee  http://www.twingroves.district96.k12.il.us/NativeAmericans/Pawnee.html
Pawnee  http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/pawnee.html
Pawnee  http://www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/ok/nations/pawnee/
Pawnee  http://www.nativeamericans.com/Pawnee.htm
Pawnee  http://www.pbs.org/wotp/tribes/pawnee/
Pawnee-Arikara Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=PAW
Pawnee Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t72
Pawnee Bill's Wild West Show  http://www.jcs-group.com/oldwest/wildwestshow/pawneebill.html
Pawnee During Historic Era in Nebraska  http://www.nebraskastudies.org/0300/frameset_reset.html?http://www.nebraskastudies.org/0300/stories/0301_0107.html
Pawnee Enrollment  http://www.pawneenation.org/enrollment.htm
Pawnee Flag  http://users.aol.com/donh523/navapage/pawn.htm
Pawnee Indian Corn Soup  http://www.aniwaya.org/html/cooking/soups/soup-006.html
Pawnee Indians  http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/view/PP/bmp52.html
Pawnee Indians  http://www.rra.dst.tx.us/c_t/indians/PAWNEE%20INDIANS.cfm
Pawnee Indian School  http://www.brokenclaw.com/native/pawnee.html
Pawnee Indian Sky Map  http://classweb.howardcc.edu/astronomy/Presentations/Chapter3/sld028.htm
Pawnee Indian Tribe  http://www.nanations.com/pawnee/
Pawnee Indian Tribe  http://www.kansasgenealogy.com/indians/pawnee_indian_tribe.htm
Pawnee Indian Village Museum  http://www.kshs.org/places/pawneeindian/
Pawnee Language  http://www.native-languages.org/pawnee.htm
Pawnee Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=PAW
Pawnee Literature  http://www.indians.org/welker/pawnee.htm
Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma  http://www.pawneenation.org/
Pawnee Pictures  http://php.indiana.edu/~tkavanag/phothana.html
Pawnee Scout  http://www.chicanarteyque.com/Gallery/gallery21.htm
Pawnee Sky Observations  http://hoa.aavso.org/spacetalk.htm
Pawnee Society  http://lucy.ukc.ac.uk/EthnoAtlas/Hmar/Cult_dir/Culture.7864
Petalsharo (Man Chief)  http://www.axel-jacob.de/chiefs10.html
Pike-Pawnee Flag Incident  http://aplatoff.home.mindspring.com/flags/pikepawnee.html
Storyteller's Sacrafice  http://www.in-forum.com/specials/DyingTongues/index.cfm?page=article&id=39196&tribe=Arikara&sub=1
Stuhr Museum of the Prairie Pioneer  http://www.stuhrmuseum.org/tourlodge.htm
Treaty With the Pawnee Tribe  http://www.utulsa.edu/law/classes/rice/Treaties/07_Stat_279_Pawnee.htm
Weltfish, Gene  http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/weltfish.html
Wicked Chief  http://www.indigenouspeople.net/wicked.htm

Last updated 04/04/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press