Ethnie: PAWNEE
Dialect Pawnee
Language: Pawnee-Arikara
Family Pawnee-Kitsai
Stock: Northern Caddoan
Phylum: Caddoan
Macro-Culture: Great Plains
Speakers 4 speakers    1977 SIL
      The Pawnee were a sedentary hunter/farmer nation but became nomadic buffalo hunters in the summer.  They lived about the middle course of the Platte River and on the Republican fork of the Kansas River.  The Arikara fissioned from the Skidi Pawnee at a late date.
      Their territory was imposed upon by the entry of the Sioux and Cheyenne onto the plains resulting in wars.  They were victimized further by the predatory Comanche and Kiowa and fought with the Osage.  They allied with the Whites, but later suffered from White introduced diseases as well as their depredations.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
KA  (Kitkehahki or Republican)
NE  (Chaui or Grand Pawnee, Pitahauerat or Tapage, Skidi)
Present Locations
OK  Pawnee Tribe, Pawnee
Year History
1541 Met by Spaniards under Coronado
1601 Encountered by Onate
1682 Tribe had horses
1700 Arikara had fissioned from Skidi Pawnee before this date
1770 Southern asd Skidi tribes rejoined after fur trade declined
1795 Arikara returned to Pawnee
1803 Settler influx as a result of Louisiana Purchase, allied with Whites for protection against Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, and Apache
1816 Morning Star human sacrifice ceremony ended by 19 year old Petalsharo (Man Chief)
1818 Killed 84 Osage in battle
1826 Osage killed 18 Pawnee
1829 400 warlike Pawnee nomads in Indian Territory
1833 Ceded lands by treaty
1839 Probable smallpox epidemic
1848 Ceded lands by treaty
1849 Cholera epidemic
1857 Ceded lands by treaty
1865 Frank and Luther North organized a band of Pawnee scouts for US Cavalry battles with plains tribes
1869 Battle at Summit Springs vs. Cheyenne, Pawnee scout Mad Bear received Congressional Medal of Honor
1873 Sioux attack killed 150 Pawnee including Petalsharo (Sky Chief) at Massacre Canyon, Nebraska
1876 Ceded remaining lands for tract in Oklahoma, suffered severely from move
Year Total Population KA NE OK Source
Arrival 15,000 3,000 12,000
1700 12,000 3,000 9,000 NAHDB calculation
1780 10,000 Mooney estimate
1800 10,000 NAHDB calculation
1856 4,686 Swanton
1861 3,416 Swanton
1879 1,440 US Indian Office
1900 700 700 NAHDB calculation 
1906 649 US Indian Office
1910 633 Census
1923 773 US Indian Office
1930 730 Census
1937 959 US Indian Office
1981 2,066 BIA
1989 2,229 BIA estimate
2000 3,000 3,000 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Pawnee Sites:
Ancient Pawnee Medal
Battle at Massacre Canyon
Battle Creek History
Battle at Summit Springs
Dying Songs
Genoa - Nance County
Gover, Kevin, Apology
History of St. John's
Lift Every Pawnee Voice
Mad Bear, Pawnee, Congressional Medal of Honor Recipient
Myth, Folktale, and Ritual ...
Native American Portraits
Pawnee-Arikara Language
Pawnee Authors
Pawnee Bill's Wild West Show
Pawnee During Historic Era in Nebraska
Pawnee Enrollment
Pawnee Flag
Pawnee Indian Corn Soup
Pawnee Indians
Pawnee Indians
Pawnee Indian School
Pawnee Indian Sky Map
Pawnee Indian Tribe
Pawnee Indian Tribe
Pawnee Indian Village Museum
Pawnee Language
Pawnee Linguistic Lineage
Pawnee Literature
Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma
Pawnee Pictures
Pawnee Scout
Pawnee Sky Observations
Pawnee Society
Petalsharo (Man Chief)
Pike-Pawnee Flag Incident
Storyteller's Sacrafice
Stuhr Museum of the Prairie Pioneer
Treaty With the Pawnee Tribe
Weltfish, Gene
Wicked Chief

Last updated 04/04/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press