Pecos Pueblos



Language: Towa
Family: Towa
Stock: Kiowa-Towa
Phylum: Kiowa Tamoan
Macro-Culture: Southwestern
Speakers 0
      The Pecos Pueblos were a sedentary agricultural culture of the greater Pueblo culture.  They were located on an upper branch of the Pecos River, about 30 miles southeast of Santa Fe.  They were early victims of the Spanish conquest and, being the easternmost of Pueblo tribes, they were easily preyed upon by the Navajos, Apaches, Comanches, and Utes.  They confederated into the Jemez Pueblo as refugees in 1838 with whom they are now enumerated.
Aboriginal Locations
NM  5 villages
Arizona Present Locations
AZ:  Jemez Pueblo, Jemez
Year History
1528 Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca was told of rich agricultural pueblos north of Texas along the Rio Grande and he specifically new of the Pecos Pueblos
1539 After viewing a Zuni pueblo from an distance, Fray Marcos de Niza started the Seven Cities of Cibola rumor
1540 Coronado set out to conquer Cibola with 300 men, 1,000 horses, 6 friars
1573 Royal Ordinance of King Phillip II protected Indians from conquest
1581 Father Augustin Rodriquez led a party of nine up the Rio Grande
1582 Antonio de Espejo  expedition to rescue friars prospected westward after learning of their death
1598 Juan de Onate led 400 soldiers, friars, colonists; forced Pueblos to swear vassalage to Spain, declared the region a Franciscan missionary province which he divided into seven districts
1607 Onate removed from governorship
1609 New governor Pedro de Peralta founded Santa Fe, built palace with Pueblo labor, disregarded protection laws
1628 Numerous churches built, 30 friars added, native religions banned
1640 Severe drought, thousands died
1663 Severe drought for several years, thousands died
1680 Pueblo Revolt against Spanish led by San Juan Tewa Pope, 500 Spanish slaughtered in siege of Santa Fe
1694 Spanish attack under Vargas killed 84, 361 prisoners removed to Santa Fe, reconquest destroyed Patoqua, Jemez reoccupied Gyuiswa
1700 Comanche and Ute raids began
1720 Trade fairs began with nomadic tribes and prosperity resulted
1777 Gov. Juan Bautista de Anza arranged peace between Pueblos and all nomadic tribes except Apache
1782 Pecos mission abandoned, becoming a visita of Santa Fe, almost entire tribe killed by Comanche and by an academic
1821 Mexican Independence, violence fanned by Mexican slaving raids
1823 Capitalizing on disorganized Mexican rule, start of 20 years of slaving and scalping by Navajo, Ute, Apache, and Comanche
1837 Small tax revolt quelled
1838 Last Pecos Pueblo abandoned, survivors confederated into Jemez
1863 Kit Carson began Navajo roundup, some starvation due to crop failure, continued Mexican slaving
Year U.S. Population Source
1630 2,000 Fray Alonzo de Benevides
1680 2,000 Fray Augustin de Vetancurt
1700 1,000 NAHDB calculation
1706 1,000 Fray Juan Alvarez
1752 318 New Mexico Census
1797 189 Fray Francisco de Hezio
1800 100 NAHDB calculation
1806 104 Gov. Alencaster
1838 17 Last remnants joined Jemez
1900 0 NAHDB calculation
2000 0 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Jemez Pueblos
 Pecos Sites:
Ancient Native American Remains ...
Anthropology Rules!
Black Eagle Pueblo of Jemez
Bow and Arrow Dance of Jemez
Drowning of Pecos
History of the Jemez Springs Bath House
Hope (Jemez) 1925 Photo
Jemez and Acoma Art
Jemez Basket
Jemez Clown Mask
Jemez Indian Reservation
Jemez Indian Tribe
Jemez Language
Jemez Linguistic Lineage
Jemez Miniature Pottery
Jemez Pottery
Jemez Pottery
Jemez Pottery
Jemez Pottery
Jemez Pottery
Jemez Pottery
Jemez Pottery
Jemez Pottery
Jemez Pottery
Jemez Pottery, circa 1946
Jemez Pottery, Rediscovering the Clay
Jemez Pottery, Red Melon Pot
Jemez Pottery Snake
Jemez Pottery Storyteller
Jemez Pottery Tradition
Jemez Pottery Vessels
Jemez Pueblo Drummers Make History
Jemez Pueblo
Jemez Pueblo
Jemez Pueblo
Jemez Pueblo Items
Jemez Pueblo Photos
Jemez Pueblo Pottery
Jemez Pueblo Pottery
Jemez Pueblo (Walatowa)
Jemez Pueblo Wala-towa
Jemez Seed Pot
Jemez Storyteller
Kwastiyukwa Pueblo
Kokopelli ...
Peabody Returns Remains to Pecos Pueblo
Pecos National Monument History
Pecos Pueblo
Pecos Pueblo:  Where Cultures Meet
Pecos Ruins Span Centuries
Pecos Story, A
Pueblo Culture and Ethnobotany
Santa Ana and Jemez River - 1925 Photo
Thousands of Indian Skeletons Returned
Towa Language (Jemez)
Towa Linguistic Lineage
Walatowa Visitor Center
Wall, Adrian

Last updated 03/14/05   Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press