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Pennacook

 

 

Ethnie: PENNACOOK
Language: Abenaki
Family: Eastern Algonquian
Stock: Algonquian
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
      The Pennacook were a sedentary hunter/farmer tribe. They were located in southern and central New Hampshire, northeastern Massachusetts and southernmost Maine. They suffered severely from White contact. Most survivors joined the Abnaki or absorbed into other cultures, many remaining in New Hampshire
Aboriginal Locations: Subdivisions (Villages)
ME    Accominta, Newichawanoc
MA   Agawam, Nashua, Naumkeg, Pentucket, Wachuset, Weshacum
NH   Amoskeag, Coosuc, Pennacook, Piscataqua, Souhegan, Squamscot, Wamesit, Winnecowet, Winnipesaukee
Present Locations
MA   Cowasuck Band of Pennacook-Abenaki People, Franklin
NH    Pennacook New Hampshire Tribe, Manchester
Year History
1497 European fishing boats soon began fishing at Grand Bank off of the coast of Maine soon after the visit of Sebastian Cabot
1524 Giovanni da Verrazano also explored the area
1586 Typhus epidemic
1615 Micmac attacks on Pennacook
1617 Smallpox epidemic(s)
1621 Pennacook encountered by Pilgrims
1627 Participated war with Western Abenaki and Mahicans against the Mohawk
1629 Passaconnaway signed a treaty and sold some lands to colonists
1638 Trading post established on Merrimack River near a pennacook villages
1642 Wanalancet, son of Passaconnaway, was held as a hostage by English for two years and released in only after the Pennacook signed a treaty of submission to Massachusetts
1651 French sent a Montagnais chief and Jesuit to Pennacook, Sokoki, Pocumtuc, and Mahican to form an alliance against the Mohawk
1652 Pennacook forced to surrender lands to the English for protection against Mohawk
1655 Pennacook forced to surrender lands to the English for protection against Mohawk
1656 Pennacook forced to surrender lands to the English for protection against Mohawk
1662 Pennacook forced to surrender lands to the English for protection against Mohawk
1665 Pennacook suffered severely from attacks by Mohawk
1666 Pennacook suffered severely from attacks by Mohawk while allies were attacking Mohawk villages
1668 A trading post was built by Richard Waldron at Pennacook capitol village
1669 Passaconnaway died and was succeeded by his son Wanalancet
1675 Many Pennacook removed to Canada with the outbreak of King Philip's War
1676 Pennacook village attacked by Captain Samuel Mosely for accepting refugees
1701 Most Pennacook had absorbed into the Abenaki
Year Total Population MA NH NY RQ Source
1600 2,000 Mooney estimate
1675 1,200 Dick Shovel
1677 600 Dick Shovel
1700 600 200 100 300 NAHDB calculation
1800 200 50 50 100 NAHDB calculation
1900 300 50 50 200 NAHDB calculation 
2000 400 50 50 300 NAHDB calculation 
Other speakers of the same language:
Abenaki, Penobscot
Pennacook Sites:
Abenaki Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=ABE
Abenaki Language  http://www.native-languages.org/abenaki.htm
Abenaki Language  http://www.cowasuck.org/language/language.htm
Abenaki Language  http://www.turtle-tracks.org/issue91/i91_11.html
Abenaki Language Plaque  http://www.schoolnet.ca/aboriginal/tribute/abenak-e.html
Abenaki Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_lang_family.asp?code=ABE
Abnaki-Penobscot Language  http://www.language-museum.com/a/abnaki-penobscot.php
Cowasuck Band of the Pennacook-Abenaki People  http://www.cowasuck.org/pageone.cfm
Going Back 11,000 Years  http://www.mledger.com/2003/archives/1indiandig_10-17-02.shtml
Passaconaway  http://www.johnjhenderson.com/Notables/Biographies/passaconaway.htm
Passaconaway in the White Mountains  http://www.sidis.net/PASSChap2.htm
Pennacook  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t208
Pennacook  http://reference.allrefer.com/encyclopedia/P/Pennacoo.html
Pennacook Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t208
Pennacook Basket  http://www.mintmuseum.org/exhibit.php?exhibit_id=16
Pennacook History  http://www.dickshovel.com/penna.html
Pennacook Indian History  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/algonquian/pennacookhist.htm
Pennacook Indians  http://www.aaanativearts.com/article28.html
Pennacook/Merrimac/St. Francois Indians  http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/pennacook.htm
Tracking Passaconaway  http://seacoastnh.com/History/As_I_Please/Tracking_Passaconaway/
Wattanummon  http://1704.deerfield.history.museum/popups/people.do?shortName=Wattanummon
Who Were the Pennacook Indians?  http://okok.essortment.com/pennacookindian_rmrq.htm

Last updated 09/15//05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press