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Pima

 

 

Ethnie: PIMA (AKIMEL O'ODHAM)
Language: Upper Piman
Family: Tepiman
Stock: Uto-Aztecan
Phylum: Aztec-Tanoan
Macro-Culture: Southwestern Desert
Speakers 11,819 1990 Census including Tohono O'Odham
     The Pima were comprised of two separate hunter/farmer nations.  The Pima Alto lived in the valley of the Salt River and eventually extended into the valley of the Gila River and into Sonora, Mexico.  The Pima Bajo or Nevome lived in Sonora and are not covered in this analysis.
     Pima tradition maintains that the adobe ruins of their region, including Casa Grande, were built by their ancestors.  It continues that their old way of life was destroyed by three bands of foreigners who destroyed their pueblos, devastated their fields, and killed or enslaved many of their people.  The survivors fled to the mountains for some time, and upon returning, elected not to rebuild the pueblos.
     The Pima experienced early Spanish influence from missionization.  They suffered from Apache depredations and the influx of settlers and outlaws.  They nonetheless maintained substantial populations.
Aboriginal Locations
About 90 villages in AZ
Arizona Present Locations
AZ  Ak Chin Reservation, Ak Chin
       Gila River Indian Community, Sacaton
       Salt River Reservation, Scottsdale  http://www.saltriver.pima-maricopa.nsn.us/
Year History
1694 Visited by Father Kino
1731 Frs. Segresser and Grashoffer founded Missions San Xavier del Bac and San Miguel de Guevavi
1736 Visited by Fr. Ignacio Javier Keller
1751 Small Pima rebellion
1768 Visited by Fr. Garces
1769 Decrease in Spanish military presence resulted in increased Apache raids
1776 Presidio established at Tucson, 75 men
1853 Gadsden Purchase
1854 Railroad surveys
1856 Campaign with the US military against the Apache
1859 White settlers began to deplete water
1871 First school opened; beginning of 40 years of famine due to lack of water
1879 Railroad constructed; suffered from depredations of White settlers and outlaws, reservations established by Executive Order of Rutherford B. Hayes
1886 Pursued Geronimo with US military
1929 Coolidge Dam completed to provide water to Pima
1945 Pima Marine Ira Hayes helped to raise the American flag at Mt. Suribachi, Iwo Jima
2005 Water deal allowed for renewed farming
Year U.S. Population Source
1680 4,000 Mooney estimate
1700 4,000 NAHDB calculation
1775 2,500 Garces estimate
1800 2,500 NAHDB calculation
1900 3,900 NAHDB calculation
1906 3,936 Swanton
1910 4,236 Census
1923 5,592 US Indian Office
1930 4,382 Census
1937 5,170 US Indian Office
1973 11,081 BIA
1989 13,500 BIA Estimate
1990 15,000 FactMonster
2000 20,000 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Sobaipuri, Tohono O'Odham
Pima Sites:
Ak Chin Indian Community  http://www.itcaonline.com/tribes_akchin.html
Akimel O'Odham/Pima  http://www.nps.gov/tuma/soba.html
American Indian Women as Art Educators  http://jaie.asu.edu/v18/V18S1ame.html
Aw-aw-tam Indian Nights  http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/sw/ain/ain00.htm
Ballad or Ira Hayes  http://www.fortunecity.com/tinpan/parton/2/ira.html
Bluebird and the Coyote   http://www.teachers.net/lessons/posts/1170.html
Boy and the Beast  http://www.earthbow.com/native/pima/beast.htm
Casino Arizona  http://www.casinoaz.com/arts.asp
Fame of Padre Kino  http://www.padrekino.org/documentienglish/ukfamous.htm
Flood on Superstition Mountain  http://www.ilhawaii.net/~stony/lore72.html
Gathering Cactus Fruit  http://curtis.library.northwestern.edu/viewPage.cgi?showp=1&size=2&id=nai.02.book.00000021.p&volume=2
Gila River Pilgrimage  http://www.niseibaseball.com/html%20articles/Baseball%20Behind%20%20Barbed%20Wire/Gilariver.html
Gila River Relocation Camp  http://www.csuohio.edu/art_photos/gila/gila.html
Hayes, Ira Hamilton, Arlington National Cemetery  http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/irahayes.htm
Hayes, Ira, Pima Tribe  http://thegoldweb.com/voices/irahayes.htm
History Pima Basket Tray  http://www.sherwoodsspirit.com/baskets/a6211.html
Hohokam Pima National Monument  http://www.nps.gov/pima/
How Rattlesnake Learned to Bite  http://www.towerofbabel.com/map/article.pl?sid=04/07/06/2020227&mode=thread&tid=251&tid=267
Indian Lands  http://www.arizonan.com/Indianlands/Indianlands.html
... Lessons Learned on the Pima Reservation  http://www.pc.maricopa.edu/news/December%2002/1120.html
List of Birds, Pima Reservation  http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Condor/files/issues/v003n02/p0044-p0046.html
Miniature Pima Basket  http://pages.tias.com/288/PictPage/1921789126.html
Old Pima Indian Basket  http://www.oldterritorialshop.com/items/338982/item338982store.html
O'Odham Language http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=PAP
Papago-Pima  http://www.language-museum.com/p/papago-pima.htm
Pima  http://www.nativeamericans.com/Pima.htm
Pima  http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/society/A0839061.html
Pima Basket  http://www.carlsengallery.com/pastauc/6-22-2003/588.htm
Pima Basket  http://antiques.goantiques.com/detail,native-american-pima,755004.html
Pima Basket  http://antiques-internet.com/colorado/lewisbobrickantiques/dynapage/IP155.htm
Pima Basket  http://www.shushyaz.com/santafe/baskets/pimabasket.htm
Pima Basket  http://www.ancientartsgallery.com/Baskets/Pima_Basket1.htm
Pima Basket  http://www.altermann.com/inventory/3531.htm
Pima Basket  http://www.altermann.com/inventory/3530.htm
Pima Basket  http://www.toh-atin.com/Pages/Baskets/pimacbjs4_1.html
Pima Basket  http://www.p4a.com/itemsummary/204950.htm
Pima Baskets  http://www.indianterritory.com/pages/pima.htm
Pima Baskets  http://www.adobegallery.com/origin.php?origin_id=20&cat_id=2
Pima Basket Tray  http://www.nmai.si.edu/exhibitions/all_roads_are_good/PimaBasket.htm
Pima Coiled Basket  http://www.davidrumsey.com/amico/amico765119-101799.html
Pima Cotton  http://www.bartleby.com/61/71/P0307100.html
Pima Indian Barn  http://www.harvard-diggins.org/Burbank/Years/1946/1946_Pima_Indian_Barn_AZ.htm
Pima Indian Baskets  http://www.cristofs.com/Baskets/Pima%20Baskets.html
Pima Indian Drummer Boy Ornament  http://www.allensinc.com/goebel/figurine/102200.htm
Pima Indian Legends  http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/samples/sam423.htm
Pima Indian Polychrome Basket  http://www.oldterritorialshop.com/items/349192/item349192store.html
Pima Proverbs  http://www.worldofquotes.com/proverb/Native-American-Pima/1/
Pima Indians  http://jeff.scott.tripod.com/pima.html
Pima Indian Tribe, History  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/arizona/pimaindianhist.htm
Pima Pottery  http://www.clayhound.us/sites/pima.htm
Piman People ...  http://www.desertusa.com/ind1/du_peo_piman.html
Pima Olla  http://www.ancientartsgallery.com/Baskets/pima_basket5.htm
Pima Tray Basket  http://www13.ivenue.com/cowboycabin/item113344.ctlg
... Preserves Pima Indian Culture  http://www.tempe.gov/newsbreak/2003/072003/default.htm
Research in the Sierra Madre ...  http://www.desertmuseum.org/programs/yecora_cienega.html
River People  http://cms.psychologytoday.com/articles/pto-20020802-000029.html
Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community  http://www.itcaonline.com/tribes_saltrv.html
Sheraton:  Wild Horse Pass  http://www.wildhorsepassresort.com/dining-wild-horse-pass.html
Smithsonian Folkways Recordings  http://www.folkways.si.edu/projects_initiatives/broadside/artists/peter_lafarge.html
Stabilizing Indigenous Languages - Pima http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/pubs/stabilize/additional/pima.htm
Stanley Explores the Hohokam Culture  http://archaeology.asu.edu/vm/Education/stanley/pages/hohokam.html
Superstition Mountain Story  http://www.burlingtonnews.net/superstitionpima.html
Surrounded by Beauty, Pima Baskets  http://www.artsmia.org/surrounded-by-beauty/southwest/pima_home.html
Taylor, Urshel, Pima Tribe  http://www.artnatam.com/utaylor/
Toast to Ira Hayes  http://www.tpromo.com/usvi/irahayes.htm
Tohono O'Odham and Akimel O'Odham Language  http://www.native-languages.org/papago.htm
Tubac Chronology  http://dizzy.library.arizona.edu/images/dobyns/app2.htm
Very Old Pima Figural Basket  http://antiques-internet.com/colorado/adobewalls/dynapage/IP2110.htm
Water Deal Allows for Gila ...  http://www.azcentral.com/arizonarepublic/news/articles/0119gilafarm19.html

Last updated 01/26/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press