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Piro Pueblos

 

 

Ethnie: PIRO PUEBLOS
Language: Tiwa
Family: Tiwa
Stock: Kiowa-Towa
Phylum: Kiowa Tamoan
Macro-Culture: Southwestern
Speakers 0
      The Piro Pueblos were a sedentary agricultural culture of the greater Pueblo culture.  The Piro proper were settled along the Rio Grande in Socorro County.  The Tompiro or Salineros lived to the east in the area of the salt lagoons.  They were early victims of the Spanish conquest and, being the easternmost of Pueblo tribes, they were easily preyed upon by the Navajos, Apaches, Comanches, and Utes.  The survivors of the Pueblo Revolt fled to Texas with the Spanish.
Aboriginal Locations
NM  85 villages
Arizona Present Locations
NM   Piro/Manso/Tiwa Indian Tribe, Pueblo of San Juan de Guadalupe, Las Cruces
TX    Tigua Reservation, Isleta del Sur Pueblo, El Paso
Year History
1528 Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca was told of rich agricultural pueblos north of Texas along the Rio Grande and he specifically new of the Pecos Pueblos
1539 After viewing a Zuni pueblo from an distance, Fray Marcos de Niza started the Seven Cities of Cibola rumor
1540 Coronado set out to conquer Cibola with 300 men, 1,000 horses, 6 friars
1573 Royal Ordinance of King Phillip II protected Indians from conquest
1581 Father Augustin Rodriquez led a party of nine up the Rio Grande
1582 Antonio de Espejo  expedition to rescue friars prospected westward after learning of their death
1598 Juan de Onate led 400 soldiers, friars, colonists; forced Pueblos to swear vassalage to Spain, declared the region a Franciscan missionary province which he divided into seven districts
1607 Onate removed from governorship
1609 New governor Pedro de Peralta founded Santa Fe, built palace with Pueblo labor, disregarded protection laws
1628 Numerous churches built, 30 friars added, native religions banned
1640 Severe drought, thousands died
1663 Severe drought for several years, thousands died
1680 Pueblo Revolt against Spanish led by San Juan Tewa Pope, 500 Spanish slaughtered in siege of Santa Fe, Piro Pueblos fled with the Spanish to Texas
1694 Spanish attack under Vargas killed 84, 361 prisoners removed to Santa Fe, reconquest destroyed Patoqua, Jemez reoccupied Gyuiswa
1777 Gov. Juan Bautista de Anza arranged peace between Pueblos and all nomadic tribes except Apache
1782 Pecos mission abandoned, becoming a visita of Santa Fe, almost entire tribe killed by Comanche and by an academic
1821 Mexican Independence, violence fanned by Mexican slaving raids
Year U.S. Population Source
1630 11,400 Fray Alonzo de Benevides
1700 1,100 NAHDB calculation
1752 297 New Mexico Census
1789 382 Gov. Fernando de la Concho Census
1800 400 NAHDB calculation
1900 400 NAHDB calculation
2000 206 Piro/Manso/Tiwa tribal rolls
2000 1,500 Isleta del Sur tribal rolls
2000 1,700 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Tiwa Pueblos
 Piro Sites:
1600 Beginnings  http://www.rootsweb.com/~txelpaso/beginnings.html
Archeology of Otero Mesa  http://www.wildmesquite.org/otero/alamoMountain.htm
First American Revolution - 1680  http://66.188.129.72:5980/History/AmericanIndian/euro_americanrevolution.htm
Gran Quivera National Monument  http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/glimpses2/glimpses14.htm
Otermin, Antonio de  http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/view/OO/fot1.html
Piro Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=PIE
Piro Linguistic Lineage http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=1712
Piro/Manso/Tiwa Indian Tribe Federal Recognition  http://indian.senate.gov/2000hrgs/s611_0524/roybal.pdf
Pueblo Culture and Ethnobotany  http://www.fourdir.com/pueblo_culture.htm
Rio Grande Pueblos Settlement Patterns ...  http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showpdf.cgi?path=130941055560059
Salinas Pueblo Missions  http://www.galenfrysinger.com/salinas_pueblo.htm
Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument  http://www.vivanewmexico.com/nm/censalinas.html
Salinas Pueblos  http://www.nps.gov/sapu/hsr/hsr2a.htm
Salinas Pueblos  http://www.desertusa.com/mag04/may/sal.html
Salinas Pueblos  http://southwest.library.arizona.edu/spmc/body.1_div.30.html
Tigua  http://www.epcc.edu/ftp/Homes/monicaw/borderlands/17_tigua_indians.htm
Tigua Indians  http://www.epcc.edu/ftp/Homes/monicaw/borderlands/10_tigua_indians.htm
tigua Indians Survive 300 Years of Ordeal  http://www.epcc.edu/ftp/Homes/monicaw/borderlands/17_tigua_indians.htm

Last updated 03/14/05   Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press