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Powhatan

 

 

Ethnie: POWHATAN
Language: Powhatan
Family: Eastern Algonquian
Stock: Algonquian
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
Speakers None
       The Powhatan were a sedentary hunter/farmer confederacy. They lived in the tidewater section and eastern shore of Virginia from the Potomac to the James River. They experienced good relations with the first colonists around Jamestown highlighted by the marriage of Pocahontas to John Rolfe. The peace soon deteriorated into a fourteen year war. They took more losses in wars with Iroquoian peoples and the Whites in the following years.
Aboriginal Locations: Subdivisions (Villages)
VA   Accohanock, Accomac, Appomattoc, Arrohattoc, Chesapeake, Chickahominy, Chiskiac, Cuttatawomen, Kecoughtan, Mattapony, Moraughtacund, Mummapacune, Nansemond, Nantaughtacund, Onawmanient, Pamunkey, Paspahegh, Pataunck, Pissasec, Potomac, Powhatan, Pappahannock, Secacawoni, Tauxenent, Warrasqueoc, Weanoc, Werowocomoco, Wicocomoco, Youghtanund (124)
Present Locations
MD    Accohannock Indian Tribe, Inc., Marion Station
VA    Chickahominy Indian Tribe, Providence Forge
          Mattaponi Reservation, West Point
          Nansemond Indian Tribe, Suffolk
          Pamunkey Reservation, King Wilkliam
          United Rappahannock Tribe Inc., Indian Neck
          Upper Mattaponi Tribe, Inc., St. Stephens Church
Year History
1498 Cabots probably among first visitors
1570 Spanish Jesuit mission established but soon extinguished by Indians
1607 Jamestown settlement
1618 Powhatan's daughter Pocahontas married John Rolfe
1622 Opechancanough, Chief Powhatan's second successor led uprising destroying all White villages except those around Jamestown; 14 year war ensued
1636 Peace agreement
1644 Opechancanough led second destructive revolt, he was killed , tribe placed on reservations
1656 Pamunkey band assisted colonists in invasion of inland people
1670 Smallpox epidemic sometime after this year
1675 Wrongly accused of Conestoga (Susquehannock) depredations, many unauthorized attacks on tribe led by Nathaniel Bacon
1676 Large number of men, women, children storm victims massacred near Richmond; peace made with survivors on condition of annual tribute to be paid by each village
1722 Colonists made treaty with Iroquois for them to stop attacks on Powhatan
1831 Powhatan band on eastern Virginia shore had become intermixed with Negroes, driven away as a result of slave uprising under Nat Turner
1935 Surviving bands: Chickahominy, Mattaponi, Nansemond, Pamunkey, Potomac, Powhatan, Rappahannock, Upper Mattaponi, Werowocomoco, Wicocomoco
Year Total Pop. MD VA Source
1600 9,000     Mooney estimate
1669 2,000       Census
1700 1,500 100 1,400 NAHDB calculation
1775 1,000       Mooney estimate
1800 1,000 100 900 NAHDB calculation
1900 850 50 800 NAHDB calculation 
1923 822     US Indian Office
2000 1,500 100 1,400 NAHDB calculation 
Other speakers of the same language:
Chowanoc, Hatteras, Machapunga, Moratok, Pamilco, Weapemeoc
Powhatan Sites:
Accohannock  http://www.ontalink.com/native_americans/accohannock.html
Accohannock Indian Tribe  http://www.easternshore.com/esguide/hist_accohannock.html
Accohannock Indian Tribe  http://www.indianwatertrails.com/
Accohannock Living Village  http://skipjack.net/le_shore/accohannock/
Algonquin Language Group - Powhatan Tribe  http://mal.sbo.hampton.k12.va.us/fourth/socstudies/indianwebquest/algon.htm
Chickahominy Indians Eastern Division  http://www.cied.org/
Chickahominy Tribe  http://www.ewebtribe.com/NACulture/chickahominy.htm
Chickahominy Tribe  http://www.chickahominytribe.org/
Cultural Anthropology of Indian Villages  http://www.lost-colony.com/cultural.html
Jamestown  http://www.williamsburgonline.com/attract/Williamsburg-VA-attractions-Jamestown.html
Jamestown, Virginia  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jamestown,_Virginia
John Smith's Virginia Village  http://away.com/primedia/pol_soc/jamestown_1.html
Mattaponi Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t186
Mattaponi Indian Reservation  http://www.baylink.org/Mattaponi/
Mattaponi Indian Town Marker  http://www.mppdc.com/historical/PagesMarkers/MattaponiIndnTown.shtml
Nansemond Indian Tribe  http://www.nansemond.org/index2.html
Nansemond Tribe  http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/VA-news/VA-Pilot/issues/1995/vp950901/08300240.htm
Pamunkey History  http://www.aaanativearts.com/article1119.html
Pamunkey Indian Museum  http://www.virginia.org/site/description.asp?AttrID=11647&MGrp=1&MCat=2
Pamunkey Indian Reservation  http://www.baygateways.net/general.cfm?id=60
Pamunkey Indians of Virginia  http://www.ls.net/~newriver/va/pamunkey.htm
Pamunkey Indian Tribe  http://www.baylink.org/Pamunkey/
Pocahontas  http://home.ntelos.net/~bollingkd/pocahontas.html
Pocahontas  http://www.mce.k12tn.net/indians/famous/pocahontas.htm
Pocahontas:  Ambassador to the New World  http://www.aetv.com/class/admin/study_guide/archives/aetv_guide.0542.html
Pocahontas/Matoaka  http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/pocahontas.htm
Powhatan Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t212
Powhatan Ceremonies and Beliefs  http://www.meadowthorpe.fcps.net/projects/native_americans/PowhatanCeremonies%20and%20Beliefs.htm
Powhatan Confederacy  http://www.nativeamericans.com/PowhatanConfederacy.htm
Powhatan Confederation  http://www.kidspoint.org/columns2.asp?column_id=912&column_type=homework
Powhatan Dictionary  http://www.wicocomico-indian-nation.com/pages/dictionary.html
Powhatan History  http://www.easternshore.com/esguide/hist_powhatan.html
Powhatan History (Short)  http://www.patc.net/history/native/ind_hist.html
Powhatan Indian Facts  http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/powhatan_kids.htm
Powhatan Indian Lifeways  http://www.nps.gov/colo/Jthanout/Indianlife.html
Powhatan Indians  http://www.baydreaming.com/powhatan.htm
Powhatan Indians of Virginia  http://falcon.jmu.edu/~ramseyil/vaindianspowindex.htm
Powhatan Indians Research Guide  http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/socialstudies/projects/jvc/unit/broad/research_outline.html
Powhatan Indian Tribe History  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/powhatan/powhatanhist.htm
Powhatan Indian Village  http://ab.mec.edu/jamestown/powhatan.html
Powhatan Indian Village  http://www.historyisfun.org/jamestown/powhatan.cfm
Powhatan Indian Village 1  http://www.ronsaari.com/stockImages/maryland/PowhatanIndianVillage1.php
Powhatan Indian Village 2  http://www.ronsaari.com/stockImages/maryland/PowhatanIndianVillage2.php
Powhatan Language  http://www.native-languages.org/powhatan.htm
Powhatan Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pim
Powhatan Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=pim
Powhatan Nation  http://www.powhatangov.org/
Powhatan Renape Nation  http://www.powhatan.org/
Powhatan Tribe Reading List  http://www.si.edu/resource/faq/nmai/powhatan.htm
Rappahannock Indian Migration  http://www.mppdc.com/historical/PagesMarkers/RappahannockIndianMigration.shtml
Rappahannock Tribe  http://fredericksburg.com/News/FLS/Projects/JohnSmith/day2/day2_jumpstory
Unofficial Pamunkey Indian Hope Page  http://home.earthlink.net/~pamunkey/
Virginia's First People  http://virginiaindians.pwnet.org/culture/index.php
Virtual Jamestown:  Powhatan Indian Attack  http://www.virtualjamestown.org/phatmass.html
Wicocomico Indian Nation  http://www.wicocomico-indian-nation.com/

Last updated 10/10/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press