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Seminole

 

 

Ethnie: SEMINOLE
Language: Muskogee
Family: Muskogee
Stock: Muskogee
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
Speakers None
      The Seminole Confederacy formed in Georgia as a result of the Yamasee War. The Oconee, Waxhaw, and Yuchi merged right after the war to form the confederacy, and the Yamasee soon followed.  Sometime after confederation, the Seminole relocated to Florida.
      Once in Florida, the Alabama and some Coushatta joined the confederacy as a result of pressure from White settlers. Some other Muskhogeans may have joined the Seminole in 1778.  A band of Miccosuki joined after an unprovoked attack by Andrew Jackson's forces.  The Creek became the largest component of the Seminole when they joined the confederacy in 1814.
      The Seminole fought three bloody wars (1817, 1842, 1855) with the United States. The third war did not officially end until 1938. Most of the Seminole were relocated to Oklahoma (Removal Act) after the second war, with some remaining in the Everglades.
Aboriginal Locations: Subdivisions (Villages)
Confederacy formed after European arrival
Present Locations
FL    Big Cypress Reservation, Hollywood
        Bobby Henry's Seminole Indian Village, Tampa
        Brighton Reservation, Hollywood
        Florida State Reservation, Hollywood
        Hollywood Reservation, Hollywood
        Oklewaha Band of Yamasee Seminole Indians, Orange Springs
OK  Seminole Tribe, Wewoka
Year History
1716 Nucleus of confederacy formed by Oconee and Yuchi in Stewart County, Georgia
1750 Moved to Florida
1767 Eufaula first Hitchitis to join confederacy
1778 Joined by more Muskhogeans
1788 May have been joined by Icafui
1814 Joined by large number of mostly Muskhogean speaking Creeks after Creek-American War
1817 First Seminole War, American forces led by Andrew Jackson
1819 Spain ceded Florida to U. S.
1823 Ceded lands in the treaty of Ft. Moultrie
1832 Treaty of Paynes Landing bound the tribe to move beyond Mississippi River within 3 years
1835 Long second Seminole War
1842 Seminole leader Oceola captured, those that surrendered relocated to Oklahoma, remainder stayed in Everglades (cost of war, 1,500American troops, $2 million); Seminole losses numbered more than 1,000
1855 Third Seminole War
1938 Official end of Third Seminole War
Year Total Pop. FL OK Source
1700 0     NAHDB calculation
1800 2,000 2,000   NAHDB calculation
1814 5,000       Swanton
1847 340 340     Swanton (Florida only)
1851 2,500   2,500   Swanton (Oklahoma only)
1857 1,907   1,907   Census (Oklahoma only)
1895 358 358     Swanton (Florida only)
1900 2,500 350 2,150 NAHDB calculation 
1919 446 446     Swanton (Florida only)
1930 2,048       Census
1973 4,372       BIA
1981 5,143       BIA
1989 5,643       BIA
2000   1,000 12,000 NAHDB calculation 
2005     12,000   Tribe
Analysis of Confederation
Confederating Ethnie Language Year Estimated Contributed Population
Oconee Mikasuki 1716 700
Yuchi Uchean 1716 500
Waxhaw Catawba 1716 50
Yamasee Mikasuki 1730 300
Alabama Alabaman 1763 500
Pawotki Alabaman 1763 100
Coushatta Alabaman 1795 100
Tamathli Mikasuki 1799 200
Creek Muskogee 1814 3,000
Miccosukee Mikasuki 1817 400
Sawokli Mikasuki 1821 400
Yamasee Mikasuki 1821 100
Calusa So FL Muskogee 1839 200
Other speakers of the same language:
Creek, Guale, Muskhogee
Seminole Sites:
Black Seminole Indians  http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/BB/bmb18.html
Black Seminoles  http://www.ccny.cuny.edu/library/News/seminoles2.html
Black Seminoles - Scouts  http://www.bjmjr.com/scouts.htm
Men Visit the Sky (Story)  http://www.ilhawaii.net/~stony/lore44.html
Origin of the Seminole Indians  http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Chronicles/v015/v015p102.html
Osceola  http://www.npg.si.edu/col/native/osceola.htm
Seizure of Negroes in Seminole Nation  http://www.african-nativeamerican.com/seizure.htm
Seminole  http://www.nativeamericans.com/Seminole.htm
Seminole Archeology  http://www.napa.ufl.edu/2004news/seminoledig.htm
Seminole Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t89
Seminole Dolls  http://www.floridamemory.com/OnlineClassroom/seminole_dolls/photos.cfm
Seminole Hard Rock Hotel and Casino Hollywood  http://seminolehollywood.casinocity.com/
Seminole (Hitchiti-Mikasuki)  http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/seminole.htm
Seminole Indian News  http://www.miccosukeeseminolenation.com/first_miccosukee_seminole_newspaper_1961.htm
Seminole Indian Scouts  http://www.texancultures.utsa.edu/seminole/seminolescouts.htm
Seminole Indian Tribe History  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/seminole/seminolehist.htm
Seminole Indian Village and Cultural Center  http://www.tradewindsresort.com/Seminole-Indian-Village-and-Cultural-Center-841-2.htm
Seminole Indians  http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/SS/bms19.html
Seminole Nation of Oklahoma http://www.cowboy.net/native/old-seminole-old/
Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts  http://www.buffalosoldier.net/SeminoleNegroIndianScouts.htm
Seminole Treaty - 1833  http://www.tngenweb.org/cessions/18330328.html
Seminole Treaty - 1865  http://www.african-nativeamerican.com/seminole_treaty.htm
Seminole Tribe  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seminole_(tribe)
Seminole Tribe of Florida  http://www.seminoletribe.com/
Seminole Tribe, Running from History  http://www.racematters.org/seminolesrunningfromhistory.htm
Seminole Tribe of Oklahoma Flag  http://users.aol.com/donh523/navapage/semokla.htm
Seminole Tribe's Cattle Drive  http://community.webshots.com/album/299876702hiafod
Seminole War Chiefs  http://community.webshots.com/album/299876702hiafod
Treaty (Black Seminoles)  http://www.texancultures.utsa.edu/seminole/treaty.htm
Unconquered Seminoles  http://www.abfla.com/1tocf/seminole/semhistory.html

Last updated 10/25/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press