FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE

 

Shawnee

 

 

Ethnie: SHAWNEE
Language: Shawnee
Family: Central Algonquian
Stock: Algonquian
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
Speakers 234 (1990 Census)
       The Shawnee were a sedentary hunter/farmer nation.  They had migrated south into Kentucky from Ohio prior to White arrival.  They were first known to French explorers to be located in the valley of the Cumberland River.  They had numerous conflicts with both Whites and other tribes.
       They were a major force in discouraging and delaying White migration westward past the Appalachians.  Great leaders including Tecumseh and Black Fish dealt devastating blows to the White.  They, from time to time, fissioned into several sub-tribes as a result of conflict.  Few peoples relocated more often than the Shawnee.  Most now reside in Oklahoma though numerous other unrecognized bands live in several other states. 
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
IN, KY, OH  Chillcothe, Hathawekela, Kispoko, Mequachake, Piqua
Present Locations
KA     United Tribe of Shawnee, De Soto
IN       Upper Kispoko Band of the Shawnee Nation, Kokomo
OH     Piqua Sept of Ohio Shawnee Indians, Dayton
           Shawnee Nation, Ohio Blue Creek Band of Adams County
           Shawnee Nation U. K. B., 
OK     Absentee Shawnee Tribe, Shawnee
           Eastern Shawnee Tribe, Quapaw
Year History
1630 Approximate year Shawnee were expelled from the Ohio Valley during the Beaver Wars
1670 Had left the upper Ohio Valley and dispersed into four groups; Chillicothe and Kispoko Shawnee allowed to settle on the Cumberland River by the Cherokee as a buffer against the Iroquois; Cherokee allowed Hathawekela Shawnee to settle on the Savannah River as a buffer against their Catawba enemies
1677 Piqua Shawnee settled in eastern Pennsylvania near the Delaware
1683 Chaouesnon Shawnee settled in Illinois and allied with the Miami
1684 Drove the Westo from the Savannah River
1690 Began leaving the Savannah region due to attacks by Yamasee and Catawba; most went to Pennsylvania; Illinois Shawnee joined others on Cumberland River
1692 Tennessee Shawnee conducted slaving raid on a Cherokee village
1694 Pennsylvania Shawnee made peace with the Iroquois
1698 Violent conflict Illinois Confederacy
1707 Final expulsion from South Carolina after defeat by the Catawba, most went to Pennsylvania, others to Tennessee, and still others would eventually join the Creek Confederacy; Cumberland Shawnee began trading with the French and allowed Charleville to establish a trading post near present Nashville
1715 Cherokee and Chickasaw joined to defeat the Cumberland Shawnee, some joined the Creek, others move north to Kentucky
1737 Delaware and Shawnee lost their lands in eastern Pennsylvania, both tribes removed to western Pennsylvania and later Ohio though one Shawnee band went south
1746 Southern band made peace with the Cherokee and settled in the Cumberland Basin
1754 Start of French and Indian War marked the start of constant hostilities with Whites
1755 British hanged a peaceful delegation of Shawnee and Delaware; Shawnee and Delaware killed 2,500 colonists over the next two years
1756 Cumberland Shawnee attacked by Chickasaw, most removed to Ohio
1758 Remaining Cumberland Shawnee joined others in Ohio via western Pennsylvania
1759 Peace with the British, raids against colonists stopped
1760 760 British prisoners exchanged but about half opted to remain with the Shawnee and Delaware
1762 Treaty at Lancaster quickly betrayed by British by building Fort Pitt and a garrison of 200 men
1763 Pontiac's Rebellion resulted in the capturing of six or nine forts west of the Appalachians; Shawnee, Delaware, and Mingo besieged Fort Pitt ultimately killing 600 settlers; smallpox epidemic may have been intentionally introduced; Col. Henry Bouquet defeated the Shawnee, Delaware, and Mingo in a two-day battle at Bushy Run.
1770 650 Kispoko and Piqua Shawnee left Ohio and headed to settle in Spanish Missouri; Michael Cresap and a group of vigilantes attacked a Shawnee trading party near Wheeling  killing a chief
1773 Shawnee killed Daniel Boone's son; Large groups of Shawnee had left Ohio in and settled in southeast Missouri
1774 50 frontiesmen west of Appalachians; Cherokee had sold their rights to Kentucky; Shawnee suffered heavy losses in Lord Dunmore's War Chief Cornstalk later signed Treay of Camp Charlotte relinquishing claims south of Ohio; Hathawekela Shawnee had left Ohio and moved to the Upper Creek in northern Alabama
1776 Shawnee and Cherokee war parties roamed through Kentucky killing settlers; Shawnee/Cherokee war party captured Daniel Boone's daughter and two friends, rescued after three days, reprisals followed
1777 Chief Cornstalk went to Fort Randolf (Point Pleasant) to warn that the Shawnee were going over to the British but ungrateful soldiers murdered Cornstalk; Cornstalk replaced by the more militant Blackfish; Ft. Henry (Wheeling) attacked by 400 Shawnee who burned settlement; Simon Girty deserted Continental Army and fought with Shawnee; Blackfish and Half King and 300 Shawnee attacked Fort Randolf
1779 300 mounted Kentucky Volunteers crossed into Ohio and burned Old Chilicothe and killed Bal; Kispoko and Piqua had returned to Ohio but soon left for Spanish Louisiana; Large groups of Shawnee had left Ohio in and settled in southeast Missouri
1780 George Rogers Clark attacked Shawnee villages on Mad River taking only seven prisoners
1793 Baron de Carondelet, the Spanish governor of Louisiana, gave the Missouri Shawnee a 25 mile square land grant near Cape Girardeau, Shawnee unwilling to accept the Greenville treaty joined them
1795 Hathawekela left the Creek in Alabama and immigrated to Spanish Louisiana
1800 Hathawekela, Kispokotha, and Piqua were in Missouri, and only the Chillicothe and Mequachake remained in Ohio
1801 Tecumseh had located his village on the deserted grounds of Fort Greenville
1802 Shawnee attacked a large Kaskaskia (Illinois) hunting party dealing heavy losses
1805 A Shawnee drunk named Lalawethika (Tecumseh's brother) underwent an spiritual awakening in which he received a religious vision and declared himself a prophet; anyone who disagreed with him or were Christians were likely to be killed as a witch or traitor; Tecumseh added a political element to his brother's religion: an alliance of all tribes to halt the surrender of land to the Americans
1808 Tecumseh had assembled almost 3,000 warriors, from different tribes, ready to fight American expansion
1811 Tecumseh left for the south to try to recruit the Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Cherokee. Before leaving, he gave his brother specific instructions that, during his absence, he was to avoid any confrontation with the Americans; soon after Tecumseh left, the Prophet ignored his brother's orders and decided to kill Harrison with a suicide squad with the ensuing battle ended in a draw, but the Americans lost 62 killed and 126 wounded, he warriors withdrew, and Harrison burned Prophetstown; the result was Tecumseh's alliance was in shambles
1812 War of 1812 began; Tecumseh with 800 warriors and 300 Canadians caused American Gen Hull to surrender without a fight at Detroit; the victory at Detroit brought more warriors to Tecumseh and set off a series of raids against American forts and settlements across the frontier as far west as Missouri
1813 900 Kentucky militia commanded by General James Winchester was ambushed on the Raisin River by Shawnee in southeast Michigan with 300 killed, 50 prisoners were murdered as British watched, newly arriving Tecumseh stopped further slaughter; Tecumseh was killed late in the afternoon of October 6th, 1813 by Harrison's command, united Native American resistance to American expansion died with him
1815 Tensquatawa remained in Canada, but most of his followers made peace with the Americans at Indian Springs and returned to Ohio; several hundred Missouri Shawnee and Delaware left the United States and moved to Texas
1817 Ceded Ohio lands for Missouri reservations in Ft. Meigs Treaty
1821 Ceded Missouri lands for lands in eastern Kansas; Black Bob's band went south and settled in Arkansas
1826 Black Hoof's band of 200 left Ohio for a two year trip to Kansas which was a horror tale
1831 400 Shawnee at Wapaughkonetta and Hog Creek ceded their Ohio lands in exchange for 100,000 acres of the Shawnee Reserve in Kansas
1833 Black Bob's band removed to Olathe, Kansas
1837 85 Shawnee volunteered as scouts for the American army against the Florida Seminole
1839 Shawnee and Cherokee expelled from Texas by a military force
1845 A large group of traditional Shawnee left the Kansas reserve and joined the Absentee near present-day Shawnee, Oklahoma
1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act, Most Shawnee sold Kansas territories for Oklahoma tracts; lost much of their lands to squatters and fraud
1861 Most Shawnee served in Union Army in Civil War; Kansas statehood
1862 Kansas Shawnee and Delaware attacked the Confederate Wichita Agency in Oklahoma
1864 Kansas legislature called for the removal of all Indians from Kansas
1867 Removal of Indian from Kansas essentially completed
1869 Congress finally approved the sale of the Kansas lands which had been reserved for the Absentee Shawnee
Year Total Population IN MO OK OH PA SC TN Source
1650 3,000 Mooney estimate
1700 2,500 500 500 1.500 NAHDB calculation
1800 2,400 1,000 1,000 400 NAHDB calculation
1825 2,301
1900 1,900 1,700 200 NAHDB calculation 
1910 1,688 Census
2005 14,000 13,400 600 Shovel
Other speakers of the same language:
None
Shawnee Sites:
Absentee Shawnee Archives  http://www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/ok/nations/ashawnee/absenteeshawnee.htm
Absentee Shawnee Tribe  http://www.astribe.com/
Absentee Shawnee Tribe  http://www.eda.gov/ImageCache/EDAPublic/documents/pdfdocs/34oklahoma_2epdf/v1/34oklahoma.pdf
Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma  http://thorpe.ou.edu/codes/absshaw/
Eastern Shawnee  http://www.easternshawnee.org/
Eastern Shawnee Constitution  http://thorpe.ou.edu/constitution/eastshawcons.html
Eastern Shawnee Tribe  http://www.eighttribes.org/eastern-shawnee/
Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma Flag  http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/us-ok_ew.html
Historic Shawnee Names  http://www.shawnee-traditions.com/Names.html
Shawnee and Delaware Indians  http://www.nps.gov/jeff/LewisClark2/TheJourney/NativeAmericans/Shawnee&Delaware.htm
Shawnee Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t92
Shawnee Beaded Jacket  http://www.legendsofamerica.com/RM-Hooks3.html
Shawnee History  http://www.tolatsga.org/shaw.html
Shawnee Indian Agency  http://www.jocomuseum.org/overlandTrails/trail_1.htm
Shawnee Indian Culture  http://www.firstcapitalohio.com/shawnee.html
Shawnee Indian Fact Sheet  http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/shawnee_kids.htm
Shawnee Indian Mission  http://www.kshs.org/places/shawnee/
Shawnee Indians  http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/shawnee_kids.htm
Shawnee Indian Tribe  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tennessee/shawneeindianhist.htm
Shawnee Indian Tribe Culture  http://oh.essortment.com/shawneeindiant_rijt.htm
Shawnee Language  http://www.turtle-tracks.org/issue81/i81_12.html
Shawnee Language  http://www.native-languages.org/shawnee.htm
Shawnee Language  http://www.shawnee-traditions.com/Language.html
Shawnee Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=SJW
Shawnee Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_lang_family.asp?code=SJW
Shawnee's Reservation  http://www.geocities.com/SouthBeach/Cove/8286/firstpg.html
Shawnee Tribe  http://kancrn.kckps.k12.ks.us/huyck/shawnee.html
United Tribe of Shawnee Indians  http://home.kc.rr.com/utosi/
United Tribe of Shawnee Indians Constitution  http://www.shawnee-traditions.com/Names.html

Last updated 08/12//05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press