Southeastern Woodlands Culture

Southeastern Woodlands Cultural Traits

1.   Sedentary hunter/farmers
.  Dry farmed corn, beans, and squash
.  Hunted and fished
2.   Practiced Animistic religion
.   Strict incest taboos
.   Puberty rites of passage:
.   Polygamous
.   Shaman based
3.   Near constant state of war including coup counting
4.   Communal
5.   Wove baskets and made pottery
6.   Usually lived in cabins with each village having a communal round house for ceremonies and to house visitors
7.   Traded extensively with Choctaw/Chickasaw being lingua franca (trade language)

Southeastern Culture languages and tribes:

Phylum / Stock / Family / Language Tribe
Macro-Algonquian / Algonquian / Proto-Eastern Algonquian / Nanticoke Conoy
Nanticoke
Macro-Algonquian / Algonquian / Proto-Eastern Algonquian /Powhatan  Chowanoc
Hatteras
Machapunga
Moratok
Pamilco
Powhataqn
Weapmeoc
Macro-Algonquian / Muskhogean / Muskhogean / Alabaman Alabama (1763)**
Coushatta (1763)**
Kaskinampo
Muklasa (1838)*
Pawotki (1763)**
Tuskegee (1715)*
Macro-Algonquian / Muskhogean / Muskhogean / Choctaw/Chickasaw Acolapissa
Bayougoula
Chakchiuma
Chickasaw
Choctaw
Houma
Mobile
Napochi
Okelusa
Pascagoula
Pensacola
Tohome
Macro-Algonquian / Muskhogean / Muskhogean / Cusabo Cusabo (1720)*
Macro-Algonquian / Muskhogean / Muskhogean / Hitchiti Apalachicola (1836)*
Chiaha (1870)*
Hitchiti (1838)*
Miccosiki (1817)**
Oconee (1716)**
Okmulgee (1836)*
Sawokli (1716)**
Tamathli (1799)*, (1799)**
Yamasee (1730)*, (1730)**
Macro-Algonquian / Muskhogean / Natchez / Natchez Avoyel
Natchez
Taensa
Macro-Algonquian / Muskhogean / Muskhogean / Muskhogean Guale (1715)*
Muskhogee (1715)*, (1814)**
Macro-Algonquian / Tunican / Tunican / Chitimachan  Chawasha
Chitimacha
Washa
Macro-Algonquian / Tunican / Tunican / Tunican Koroa
Tunica
Yazoo
Macro-Algonquian / Uchean / Uchean / Uchean Yuchi (1716)**
Macro-Siouan / Iroquoian / Northern Iroquoian / Nottoway-Tuscaroran Coree
Tuscarora
Macro-Siouan / Iroquoian / Southern Iroquoian / Cherokee Cherokee
Macro-Siouan / Siouan / Catawban / Catawban Catawba
Cheraw
Congaree
Santee
Sewee
Wateree
Waxhaw
Woccon
Macro-Siouan / Siouan / Catawban / Eno Eno
Keyauwee
Sissipahaw
Macro-Siouan / Siouan / Catawban / Pedee Cape Fear
Pedee
Waccamaw
Macro-Siouan / Siouan / Tutelo / Tutelo Manahoac
Monacan
Moneton
Nahyssan
Occaneechi
Saponi
Tutelo
 
*     All or part of the tribe confederated into the Creek Confederacy for military purposes against the Georgia Colony in the year shown.  Included in the confederacy were a Shawnee band who joined in 1715.  The Creek Confederacy was indeed formed in 1715, and was not a culture, but rather, an army.

 

**   All or part of the tribe confederated into the Seminole Confederacy for military purposes against the Georgia Colony in the year shown.  Those Muskhogee who joined in 1814 left the Creek Confederacy.  The confederacy removed to Florida in 1750.  They were also joined by surviving Icafui Timucuans and Calusa of the Florida Culture.
SOUTHEASTERN WOODLANDS CULTURE ETHNOBOTANY
Wild Plant/ Domesticated Plant Scientific Name Use
Alabama Supplejack Berchemia scandens (Hill) K. Koch Fastener Stems used to fasten dugout canoes to the shore and for general fastening purposes.
Allegheny Blackberry Rubus allegheniensis Porter Food Fruit used for food.
Drink Fruit used to make juice.
Allegheny Serviceberry Amelanchier laevis Wieg. Food Fresh fruit used for food.
American Basswood Tilia americana L. Building Wood used for lumber.
Cordage Boiled bark twisted into rope.
Carving Wood used to carve.
Food Young leaves - raw or cooked, sap can also be concentrated into a syrup and used as a sweetener, Flowers - raw can be added to salads
Drink Sap - obtained from next to the bark and used as a refreshing drink, flowers are used as a tea substitute, they are sweet and fragrant
American Beech Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. Building Wood used for lumber.
Cooking Wood used to make food or chopping bowls and mortars.
Misc. Used to make snowshoe frames, wood used to make buttons.
American Chestnut Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. Food Nuts ground into a meal and used to make bread, nuts boiled, pounded with corn, kneaded, wrapped in a green corn blade, boiled and eaten.
Drink Used as a coffee substitute.
Dye Bark used to make a brown dye.
American Hogpeanut Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fern. Food Underground fruit used to make bean bread, underground fruit cooked like pinto beans or added to cornmeal and hot water.
American Lotus Nelumbo lutea Willd. Food Hard, nut-like seeds cracked, freed from the shells and used with meat to make soup, flour mixed with corn flour to make bread, peeled tubers cooked with meat or hominy and used for food, seeds gathered and roasted like chestnuts, roots gathered, cut and strung for winter use.
American Plum Prunus americana Marsh. Food Fruit used for food.
Drink Fruit used to make juice.
American Sycamore Platanus occidentalis L. Misc. Wood used to make buttons.
American Witchhazel Hamamelis virginiana L. Drink Leaves and twigs used to make tea.
Weapons Wood used to make bows and arrow shafts
Annual Ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Ceremony Used as an ingredient in green corn medicine.
Aquatic Milkweed Asclepias perennis Walt. Weapons Plant fibers used to make bowstrings.
Aztec Tobacco Nicotiana rustica L. Ceremony Used extensively in rituals, plant smoked in the pre-ballgame rituals.
Smoking Leaves used for smoking.
Baldcypress Taxodium distichum (L.) L.C. Rich. Cordage Bark used to make cordage.
Building Wood used for building
Boats Trunks used to make dugout canoes
Music Drums were made out of cypress knees
Balsam Poplar Populus balsamifera ssp. balsamifera Boats The largest canoes were of poplar
Bamboovine Smilax pseudochina L. Food Roots used for food.
Beans (Note: Most dry beans grown in North America are of the same species) Phaseolus vulgaris L. Food (Cherokee)  Beans used to make bean bread, beans used to make hickory nut soup, beans used for food.
Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Food Fruit used for food.
Building Wood used for lumber.
Furniture Wood used to make furniture.
Blackgum or Black Tupelo Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. Food Fruit eaten
Black Huckleberry Gaylussacia baccata (Wangenh.) K. Koch Food Berries used for food.
Black Locust Robinia pseudoacacia L. Drink Bark steeped into tea.
Weapons Wood used to make bows and blowgun darts.
Building  Wood used to make frames for houses
Food Seed boiled and used like peas [?] (Note:  Seeds have some toxicity)
Black Raspberry Rubus occidentalis L. Food Fresh fruit used for food, fruit used to make jelly, fruit dried for winter use.
Black Walnut Juglans nigra L. Food Nuts dried in the rafters for future use, nuts mixed with skinned hominy corn, water and pinto beans, nuts used for food.
Furniture Wood used to make furniture.
Dye Used for a dye widely used in basketry
Cosmetic Used to make hair oil
Bottle Gourd (Note:  Many gourds are of the same species) Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. Cooking Used for water dippers, cups and bowls.
Music Used for drums and rattles.
Box Elder Acer negundo L. Drink The sap contains a reasonable quantity of sugar and can be used as a refreshing drink or be concentrated into a syrup
Food Inner bark - raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or be added to cereal flours when making bread, cakes etc
Bristly Locust Robinia hispida L. Weapons Wood used to make bows and blowgun darts.
Broomsedge Bluestem Andropogon virginicus L. Ceremony Used as an ingredient in green corn medicine.
Butterfly Milkweed Asclepias tuberosa L. Clothing Stems used to make belts.
Button Eryngo Eryngium yuccifolium var. synchaetum Gray ex Coult. & Rose Misc. Used to make mats
Cabbage Palmetto Sabal palmetto (Walt.) Lodd. ex J.A. & J.H. Schultes Food Plant used for food.
Bulding Plant used to make houses.
Cooking Plant used to make food paddles., plant used to make skin drying frames and potato drying mats.
Weapons Plant used to make arrows, hunting dance staffs, fish drags and fish poison.
Canadian Serviceberry Amelanchier canadensis (L.) Medik. Food Berries eaten.
Canadian Wildginger Asarum canadense L. Smoking Dried leaves pounded and used for snuff.
Cat Greenbrier Smilax glauca Walt. Food Roots used for food.
Chinqupin or Chinkapin Oak Quercus muehlenbergii Engelm. Food Acorns eaten
Common Elder Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis (L.) R. Bolli Weapons Stalks formerly used for blowguns.
Common Milkweed Asclepias syriaca L. Weapons Plant fibers used to make bowstrings.
Common Persimmon Diospyros virginiana L. Food Fruit died into cakes for later use, fruit used for food, fruit used to make pudding and thick porridge.
Misc. Root worked into a comb
Common Serviceberry Amelanchier arborea (Michx. f.) Fern. Food Berries used for food.
Coontie Zamia pumila L. Food Plant used for food.
Corn (Note:  All corn is of the same species and descended from a grass called teosinte. Zea Mays Food Ears roasted, ears dried for winter use, stalks sucked for the sugar they contained, baked into little round loaves called pones, made into boiled bread, smoke dried corm meal, made into bread, porridge, cold meal gruel, ground, dried in fire and smoke, hominy. (Caddo)  Made corn bread called ponak which they ate with a corn broth.  (Cherokee)  Corn used as food, made a boiled bread mixed with beans, baked corn cakes. (Chickasaw)  Boiled corn with chestnuts, made meal with corn before it came to maturity called cold meal or boota copassa, boiled corn with venison or other meat.  (Choctaw) Seeds parched and mixed with water or boiled with or without meat, made into hominy called tanlubo or tanlublona, corn dough was called banaha, sometimes mixed sunflower seed with corn when making bread. (Creek) Used lye to make hominy called sofki, ground corn and boiled it 3 to 4 hours to make a thick porridge called  ustatahamen, hominy made into grits called sagamite. (Yuchi)  Made grits called tsoci, made corn flour called tsukha, made meal cakes called kunlo.
Drink (Chickasaw)  Corn drink preferred over plain water.
Tanning Young corn ground into pulp to take the place of deer brains in tanning, cobs burned for tanning
Crookneck Squash Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne ex Lam.) Duchesne ex Poir. Food Plant used extensively for food
Cultivated Tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. Smoking Leaves used for smoking.
Dahoon Ilex cassine L. Soap Plant used as soap.
Drink Leaves used for tea.
Dwarf Palmetto Sabal minor (Jacq.) Pers. Food Fresh root slices baked and eaten as bread.
Eastern White Pine Pinus strobus L. Building Wood used for lumber.
Boats Wood used to make thirty to forty foot long canoes, frames for skin covered boats, and rafts.
Carving Wood used to carve.
Food The seed is mainly used as a flavouring in cooking, an acceptable candy is made by boiling the tender new shoots in syrup, the sticky amber sap can be used for chewing, inner bark is often dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread.
Dye A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles
Field Pumpkin Cucurbita pepo L. Food Cut into long circling slices which are barbequed or dried with slow heat (Cherokee)  Species used for food, flesh used for food.
Ceremony Rinds used to make masks
Music Used to make rattles
Flameleaf Sumac Rhus copallinum L. Dye Berries used to make both red and black dyes
Fourleaf Milkweed Asclepias quadrifolia Jacq. Weapons Plant fibers used to make bowstrings.
Fox Grape Vitis labrusca L. Food Raw fruit used for food.
Frost Grape Vitis vulpina L. Food Fruit used for food.
Giant Cane Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) Muhl. Weapons Young shoots used to make arrow shafts, stalks hollowed and used as blowguns, used to make prears and arrows (Cherokee and Catawba) Used as knives as last resort in committing suicide in 1738 smallpox epidemic.
Basketry Used to make burden baskets, used to make baskets.
Building Used to make cane webbing, plastered with mud, supported with wood and used as a dwelling, used to make stockades
Light Used to make candles and torches
Music "Joint of reed" used to make flutes.
Fishing Used to make fishing crails and traps, used to make rafts
Misc. Used to make litters
Goldenclub or Tuckahoe Orontium aquaticum Food Roots eaten
Goldenseal Hydrastis canadensis L. Dye Source of yellow dye
Graybark Grape Vitis cinerea var. baileyana (Munson) Comeaux Food Fruit used to make juice and dumplings, raw fruit used for food.
Drink Fruit mixed with sour grape, pokeberry juice, sugar and cornmeal used as a juice.
Green Arrow Arum Peltandra virginica (L.) Schott Food Plant used for food, berries eaten
Green Ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. Building Wood used for firewood and lumber.
Misc. Wood used to make handles, ball bats and butter paddles, leaves sometimes used as a towel.
Great Ragweed Ambrosia trifida L. Ceremony Used as an ingredient in green corn medicine.
Groundnut Apios americana Medik. Food Uncooked seeds substituted for pinto beans in bean bread, beans used for food, beans boiled, roots cooked like potatoes.
Honeylocust Gleditsia triacanthos Food Powdered pods used to sweeten parched corn
Drink Powdered pods used to make a sweet drink
Hordeflyweed Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. Br. ex Ait. f. Dye Used to make a blue dye.
Indianhemp Apocynum cannabinum L. Clothing Fibers used to weave grave cloth material.
Cordage Used to make cords.
Jerusalem Artichoke Helianthus tuberosus L. Food Species used for food.
Kinnikinnick Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Food Fruit used for food.
Lima or Sieva Bean Phaseolus lunatus L. Food Beans used for food, beans used to make bean bread, beans used to make hickory nut soup.
Live Oak Quercus virginiana P. Mill. Paint Bark, red oak and post oak boiled and used for paint.
Dye Roots and bark boiled to make a red basket dye.
Loblolly Pine Pinus taeda L. Building Wood used for lumber.
Boats Wood used to make thirty to forty foot long canoes, frames for skin covered boats, and rafts.
Carving Wood used to carve.
Dye A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles
Luaurel Greenbrier Smilax laurifolia L. Food Pounded roots made into cakes and fried in grease, tuberous roots dried, ground into flour and used to make bread.
Meadow Garlic Allium canadense L. Food Boiled bulbs fried with grease and greens.
Mockenut Hickory Carya alba (L.) Nutt. ex Ell. Food Species used for food, ounded nut meat boiled, made into a paste and eaten as a broth or soup.
Basketry Inner bark used to finish baskets.
Cooking Wood used to make corn beaters.
Weapons Wood used to make blowgun darts and arrow shafts.
Fishing Used for making crails
Tools Wood used to make tool handles.
Muscadine Vitis rotundifolia Michx. Food Fruit mixed with sour grape, pokeberry juice, sugar and cornmeal used as a juice.
Nodding Onion Allium cernuum Roth Food Bulbs used for food.
Northern Red Oak Quercus rubra L. Basketry Used to make baskets.
Furniture Wood used to make furniture.
Cooking Wood used to make corn beaters and mortars.Leaves used to wrap dough for bread making.
Nuttall Oak Quercus texana Buckl. Dye Burned bark and black gum ash added to water and used as a red dye.
Ogeechee Lime Nyssa ogeche Food Fruit - cooked.
Drink A refreshing lemonade-like drink
Osageorange Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid. Weapons Wood used to make bows
Pawpaw Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal Food Fruit used for food.
Cordage Inner bark used to make strong ropes and string.
Pecan Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch Food Nuts used for food, nuts stored for winter use.
Pin Cherry Prunus pensylvanica L. f. Food Fruit used for food, fruit used to make jam.
Building Wood used for lumber.
Furniture Wood used to make furniture.
Pitch Pine Pinus rigida P. Mill. Building  Wood used for lumber, houses covered with bark
Boats Wood used to make thirty to forty foot long canoes, frames for skin boats, and rafts
Carving Wood used to carve.
Tattoos Pitch used for making tattoo marks
Dye Tan or green dye obtained from needles
Prickle Pine or Table Mountain Pine Pinus pungens Lamb. Building Wood used for lumber.
Boats Wood used to make thirty to forty foot long canoes, frame for skin covered boats, and rafts
Carving Wood used to carve.
Dye Tan or green dye obtained from needles
Purpleflowering Raspberry Rubus odoratus L. Food Fresh fruit used for food, fruit used to make jelly, fruit dried for winter use.
Purple Passionflower Passiflora incarnata L. Food Fruit used for food, fruit eaten raw, young shoots and leaves boiled, fried and often eaten with other greens, leaves parboiled, rinsed and cooked in hot grease with salt as a potherb.
Drink Used to make a social drink, crushed fruit strained into a juice, mixed with flour or cornmeal to thicken and used as a beverage.
Rabbit Tobacco Alnus rubra Bong. Superstition Decoction of plant used as a wash for persons afflicted by ghosts.
Red Buckeye Aesculus pavia L. Superstition Nut carried in the pocket for good luck.
Hunting Seed used to make eye in deer decoy
Red Maple Acer rubrum L. Basketry Used to make baskets.
Building Wood used for lumber.
Furniture Wood used to make furniture.
Red Mulberry Morus rubra L Food Fresh berries used for food, berries used to make jam.
Cordage Used to make thread and rope
Rosy Twistedstalk Streptopus lanceolatus var. roseus (Michx.) Reveal Food Leaves and stalks mixed with wanegedum (Angelico) and sweet salad and cooked as greens, leaves and stalks mixed with wanegedum (Angelico) and sweet salad and canned for future use.
Roundleaf Greenbriar Smilax rotundifolia L. Food Roots used for food.
Sand Hickory Carya pallida (Ashe) Engl. & Graebn. Basketry Inner bark used to finish baskets.
Cooking Wood used to make corn beaters.
Food Species used for food.
Weapons Wood used to make blowgun darts and arrow shafts.
Tools Wood used to make tool handles.
Sassafras Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees Food Pounded, dry leaves added to soup for flavor, leaves - raw or cooked. The young leaves can be added to salads whilst both old and young leaves can be used as a flavoring and as a thickening agent in soups etc, the dried root bark can be boiled with sugar and water until it forms a thick paste, it is then used as a condiment
Ceremony Bark used as an emetic in purification after funerals, at doctor's school & after death of patient.
Drink Red and white roots, red roots preferred, used to make tea, roots and barks used to make a beverage tea.
Fertilizer Flowers mixed with beans for planting.
Cleansing Used to scent soap.
Dye A deep yellow dye is obtained from the wood and the bark
Building Wood used for house frames.
Weapons Wood used to make bows
Saw Greenbrier Smilax bona-nox L. Food Tuberous roots dried, ground into flour and used to make bread.
Saw Palmetto Serenoa repens (Bartr.) Small Basketry Stems used in basketry.
Cordage Plant used to make rope.
Ceremony Plant used to make dance fans and rattles.
Fishing Plant used to make fish drags.
Tools Plant used to make fire fans.
Toys Plant used to make dolls.
Misc. Plant used to make brushes.
Shellbark Hickory Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) G. Don Basketry Inner bark used to finish baskets.
Coking Wood used to make corn beaters.
Weapons Wood used to make blowgun darts and arrow shafts.
Tools Wood used to make tool handles.
Shortleaf Pine Pinus echinata P. Mill. Building Wood used for lumber, houses covered with bark
Boats Wood used to make thirty to forty foot long canoes, frames for skin boats, and rafts
Carving Wood used to carve.
Fishing Used for torches for fire fishing
Silver Maple Acer saccharinum L. Basketry Used to make baskets.
Building Wood used for lumber.
Furniture Wood used to make furniture.
Slim Amaranth Amaranthus hybridus L. Ceremony Used as an ingredient in a green corn medicine.
Slippery Elm Ulmus rubra Muhl. Cordage Bark used to make cordage
Cloth Bark woven into textiles
Food Leaves - raw or cooked.
Smooth Carrionflower Smilax herbacea L. Food Roots used for food, Inner bark - raw or cooked, leaves can be dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups or added to cereal flours when making bread etc
Drink A tea-like beverage can be brewed from the inner bark
Smooth Solomon's Seal Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell. Food Stems & leaves mixed with bean salad & wanegedum, blanched and boiled for three hours in a can.
Smooth Sumac Rhus glabra L. Food Berries used for food.
Dye Berries used to make both red and black dye
Southern Bayberry Morella caroliniensis (P. Mill.) Small Lighting Berries boiled and wax used to make candles.
Southern Crabapple Malus angustifolia (Ait.) Michx. Food Fruit used to make clear jelly.
Southern Red Oak Quercus falcata Food Acorns made into bread
Basketry Used to make baskets.
Furniture Wood used to make furniture.
Cooking Wood used to make corn beaters and mortars, leaves used to wrap dough for bread making.
Spanish Moss Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. Cordage Dried fibers twisted and used for cordage.
Cooking Used to remove scum in cooking.
Misc. Dried fibers twisted and used to make floor mats.
Spiny Amaranth Amaranthus spinosus L. Ceremony Used as an ingredient in a green corn medicine.
Sour Cherry Prunus cerasus L. Food Fruit used for food.
Building Wood used for lumber.
Furniture Wood used to make furniture.
Spanish Moss Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. Cordage Dried fibers twisted and used for cordage.
Textiles Used for clothing particularly among women and girls
Weapons Tinder for fire arrows
Misc. Dried fibers twisted and used to make floor mats, the pillow used for flattening the heads of infant was stuffed with it
Staghorn Sumac Rhus typhina L. Dye Berries used to make both red and black dyes
Sugar Maple Acer saccharum Marsh. Food Sap used to make sugar.
Building Wood used for lumber.
Furniture Wood used to make furniture.
Summer Grape Vitis aestivalis Michx. Food Fruit used to make juice and dumplings, raw fruit used for food.
Drink Fruit mixed with sour grape, pokeberry juice, sugar and cornmeal used as a juice.
Sweetcrabapple or Garland Crab Malus coronaria (L.) P. Mill. Food Fruit used for food.
Sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua L. Food Hardened gum used for chewing gum.
Switchcane Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta (Walt.) McClure Weapons Stalks hollowed and used as blowguns, young shoots used to make arrow shafts.
Trailing Fuzzybean Strophostyles helvula (L.) Ell. Food Boiled, mashed roots used for food.
Virginia Pine or Scrub Pine Pinus virginiana P. Mill. Ceremony Branches burned and ashes thrown on hearth fire after a death in the home.
Food Seed - raw or cooked
Drink A tea is made from the leaves
Dye A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles
Virginia Strawberry Fragaria virginiana Duchesne Food Fresh berries used for food, berries used to make jam.
Water Oak Quercus nigra L. Food Pounded acorns boiled and made into a meal, pounded acorns used as cornmeal.
Water Tupelo Nyssa aquatica L. Dye Burned bark and red oak ash added to water and used as a red dye.
Food Fruit - occasionally eaten raw
Western Pearly Everlasting Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Benth. Smoking Dried leaves used as a substitute for chewing tobacco.
Wild Leek Allium tricoccum Ait. Food Bulbs and leaves cooked like poke, with or without eggs.
White Oak Quercus alba L. Food Acorns soaked in lye water to remove bitter tannin taste, dried for storage and used to make soup.
Basketry Used to make baskets.
Furniture Wood used to make furniture.
Cooking Wood used to make corn beaters and mortars., leaves used to wrap dough for bread making.
Building Withes formed the backing of wattle walls.
Yellow Buckeye Aesculus flava Ait. Building Wood used for lumber.
Furniture Wood used to make baby cradles.
Ceremony Wood used to make masks.
Containers Wood used to make dough trays.
Fishing Seeds used to poison fish
Yellow Thistle Cirsium horridulum Michx. Food Tender, white hearts eaten raw.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
     Bushnell, Jr., David I. 1909 The Choctaw of Bayou Lacomb, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana. SI-BAE Bulletin #48
     Campbell, T.N. 1951 Medicinal Plants Used by Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Creek Indians in the Early Nineteenth Century. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 41(9):285-290
     Carlson, Gustav G. and Volney H. Jones 1940 Some Notes on Uses of Plants by the Comanche Indians. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 25:517-542
     Hamel, Paul B. and Mary U. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co.
     Perry, Myra Jean 1975 Food Use of "Wild" Plants by Cherokee Indians. The University of Tennessee, M.S. Thesis
     Speck, Frank G. 1941 A List of Plant Curatives Obtained From the Houma Indians of Louisiana. Primitive Man 14:49-75
     Swanton, John R. 1979 The Indians of the Southeastern United States.  Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 137
     Swanton, John R 1928 Religious Beliefs and Medical Practices of the Creek Indians. SI-BAE Annual Report #42:473-672
     Taylor, Linda Averill 1940 Plants Used As Curatives by Certain Southeastern Tribes. Cambridge, MA. Botanical Museum of Harvard University
     Witthoft, John 1947 An Early Cherokee Ethnobotanical Note. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 37(3):73-75