FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE

Tanaina

 

 

Ethnie: TANAINA
Language: Tanaina
Family: Tanaina-Ahtna
Stock: Athapaskan
Phylum: Na-Dene
Macro-Culture: Alaska

 

 

 

 

Speakers 75     (1997 Krausse)
      The Tanaina were a coastal fishing and hunter culture of Alaska. They lived about the drainage of Cook Inlet north of about Kalgon Island, the north half of Iliamna Lake and northward to the slopes of Mt. McKinley and the Alaska Range. They suffered huge population loses to Russian aggression and White introduced diseases.
Aboriginal Locations
AK   Clark Lake, Iliama, Lower Inlet, Middle Inlet, Susitna, Tyonek, Upper Inlet
Present Locations
AK   Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated, Anchorage 
Year History
1778 Cook entered Cook Inlet and traded with tribe
1784 Russian settlement at Kodiak, began to exploit Cook Inlet area
1785 Russian party took 20 hostages to achieve trade advantage
1786 Began trading with Portlock and Dixon
1788 Visited by Capt. Douglas
1791 Russian post at Kenai River
1799 Russian-American Company mercantile monopoly established
1804 Novo-Arkhangel founded on Sitka Island
1836 Smallpox, syphilis, tuberculosis epidemics
1845 Russian Orthodox missionization
1867 Alaska Purchase
188X Salmon canners monopolized best fishing streams
1900 Beginning of 25 years of epidemics including diphtheria, measles, whooping cough, pneumonia, and influenza
1903 Influx of miners
1915 Tribe began commercial fishing
Year AK Population   Source
  4,500   Townsend aboriginal estimate
1700 4,500   NAHDB calculation
1800 1,500   NAHDB calculation
1818 1,471   Petroff estimate
1825 1,299   Baron Wrangell estimate
1840 1,628   Veniaminoff estimate
1860 937   Holy Synod
1880 614   Census
1890 724   1890
1900 890   Mooney estimate
1900 900   NAHDB calculation
1970 531   Census
2000 800   NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
None
Tanaina Sites
Cook Inlet Incorporated  http://www.commerce.state.ak.us/dca/AEIS/Statewide_NativeCorps/NativeCorp_CookInlet.htm
Cook Inlet Tribal Council  http://www.citci.com/
Dena' Ina Language  http://www.uaf.edu/anlc/langs/ta.html
Iditarod Trail History  http://www.commerce.state.ak.us/dca/commdb/CIS.cfm?Comm_Boro_name=Nondalton
Nondalton  http://www.commerce.state.ak.us/dca/commdb/CIS.cfm?Comm_Boro_name=Nondalton
Nondalton  http://www.beringsea.com/communities/index.php?community=261
Tanaina Language  http://www.native-languages.org/tanaina.htm
Tanaina Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tfn
Tanaina Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=tfn

Last updated 10/26/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press